A Sustainable Methodology for Recycling Electric Arc Furnace Dust

  • Joseph HamuyuniEmail author
  • Petteri Halli
  • Fiseha Tesfaye
  • Maria Leikola
  • Mari Lundström
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


In a race to save the planet of its rapidly depleting natural resources, the use of Secondary Raw Materials (SRMs) as replacements in several processes is currently intensively pursued. In fact, this is currently one of the European Union (EU)’s mandates. Valorization of SRMs is consistent with circular economy, where resource efficiency is maximized for the benefit of both businesses and the environment. In line with this mandate, this paper focuses on investigating process phenomena related to hydrometallurgical recycling of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust. In the experimental study, selective dissolution of zinc and other metals is investigated to acquire a recyclable leach residue. Based on the experimental and theoretical investigations, zinc could be extracted from the EAF dust and a recyclable leach residue produced, having chemical composition suitable as a feed material into electric arc furnace.


SRMs Recycling EAF dust DSC-TGA curves Alkaline roasting 



This work has been financed by the Association of Finnish Steel and Metal Producers (METSEK project) and supported by “RawMatTERS Finland Infrastructure” (RAMI) by Academy of Finland and CMEco-project (Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation, 7405/31/2016). Some part of the work has been also done as part of the activities of the Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre at Åbo Akademi University under the project “Thermodynamic investigation of complex inorganic material systems for improved renewable energy and metals production processes”, which is also financed by the Academy of Finland. The provider of the raw material, Ovako Imatra Oy, is also greatly acknowledged by the authors.


  1. 1.
    Halli P, Hamuyuni J, Revitzer H, Lundström M (2017) Selection of leaching media for metal dissolution from electric arc furnace dust. J Clean Prod 164:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    European Commission DG ENV.E3 (2002) Heavy metals in waste, final report, project ENV.E3/ETU/2000/0058.COWI A/S, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutra AJB, Paiva PRP, Tavares LM (2006) Alkaline leaching of zinc from electric arc furnace steel dust. Miner Eng 19(5):478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holappa LEK (2017) Energy efficiency and sustainability in steel production. In: Applications of process engineering principles in materials processing, energy and environmental technologies. Springer International Publishing, pp 401–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pelino M, Karamanov A, Pisciella P, Crisucci S, Zonetti D (2002) Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts. Waste Manag 22(8):945–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Council EU (2003) Council Decision 2003/33/EC of 19 December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills persuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC. Off J Eur Communities 16(2003):L11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Petrilli FL, De Flora S (1977) Toxicity and mutagenicity of hexavalent chromium on Salmonella typhimurium. Appl Environ Microbiol 33(4):805–809Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vutukuru SS (2005) Acute effects of hexavalent chromium on survival, oxygen consumption, hematological parameters and some biochemical profiles of the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2(3):456–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Needleman H (2004) Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med 55:209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Montenegro V, Agatzini-Leonardou S, Oustadakis P, Tsakiridis P (2016) Hydrometallurgical treatment of EAF dust by direct sulphuric acid leaching at atmospheric pressure. Waste Biomass Valoriz 7(6):1531–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montenegro V, Oustadakis P, Tsakiridis PE, Agatzini-Leonardou S (2013) Hydrometallurgical treatment of steelmaking electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). Metall Mater Trans B 44(5):1058–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cruells M, Roca A, Núnẽz C (1992) Electric arc furnace flue dusts: characterization and leaching with sulphuric acid. Hydrometallurgy 31(3):213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Caravaca C, Cobo A, Alguacil FJ (1994) Considerations about the recycling of EAF flue dusts as source for the recovery of valuable metals by hydrometallurgical processes. Resour Conserv Recycl 10(1–2):35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Langová Š, Leško J, Matýsek D (2009) Selective leaching of zinc from zinc ferrite with hydrochloric acid. Hydrometallurgy, 95(3): 179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Izumi F, Young RA (1993) The Rietveld method. In: Young RA (ed) International union of crystallography, p 13Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bish DL, Howard SA (1988) Quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method. J Appl Crystallogr 21(2):86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pourbaix M (1974) Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in aqueous solutionsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Hamuyuni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Petteri Halli
    • 1
  • Fiseha Tesfaye
    • 2
  • Maria Leikola
    • 1
  • Mari Lundström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering (CMET), School of Chemical EngineeringAalto UniversityAaltoFinland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Inorganic ChemistryJohan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations