“Spirits That I’ve Cited”: Christian Mission Schools and the Chinese State in Jiaying (1903–11)

  • Hajo Frölich


Frölich focuses on the German Basel Mission schools in the Hakka-speaking interior of Chaoshan. The Christians’ involvement in modernization led to an ongoing negotiation with different worldly authorities over sacred and secular matters. As the Chinese state expanded into the cultural sphere, many mission schools found themselves under the supervision of the secular government. Through a case study of the Basel-run Leyu Xuetang (Academy of Happy Learning) in Jiaying District, Frölich demonstrates that during the late Qing’s New Policies, the Basel missionaries adapted to the universal school regulations promulgated by the Chinese imperial government. This can be seen in the adaptation of the school curriculum, school architecture, and time discipline. The Basel Mission’s willingness to yield to Chinese official demands had to do with the theological and organizational features of this German-speaking missionary enterprise.


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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hajo Frölich
    • 1
  1. 1.BerlinGermany

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