The Creative Economy in Romania, a Key Factor of Economic Integration in the European Union

  • Sorin-George Toma
  • Daniel Peptenatu
  • Ion Andronache
  • Helmut Ahammer
  • Radu-Daniel Pintilii
  • Cristian-Constantin Drăghici
  • Adrian Gabriel Simion
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


The past decades have witnessed the emergence and development of creative economies all over the world. As an impressive transformative force and one of the most rapidly growing economic sectors in today’s globalized economy, the creative economy promotes human development, social inclusion, and cultural diversity, stimulates entrepreneurship, attracts a high-quality workforce, and constitutes a pathway to economic success in terms of income generation, job creation and export earnings. The aims of our chapter are to define the concept of creative economy and to analyse the evolution of the Romanian creative economy in the period 2001–2014. In this respect, the methodology is based on the use of the geographic information system software and of the grey level co-occurrence matrix and fractal analysis. The creative economies have proved to be a veritable development vector, showing superior capacity for adapting to structural crises, and contributed to the economic integration of Romania in the EU.


Creative economy Geographic information system Fractal analysis Grey-level co-occurrence matrix Entropy Homogeneity Romania European Union 


Journal Articles

  1. Andronache I, Peptenatu D, Ciobotaru AM, Gruia AK, Gropoşilă NM (2016) Using fractal analysis in modeling trends in the national economy. Procedia Environ Sci 32:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clausi DA (2002) An analysis of co-occurrence texture statistics as a function of grey level quantization. Can J Remote Sens 28(1):45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coy P (2000) The 21st century corporation: the creative economy. BusinessWeek, pp 76–82Google Scholar
  4. Haralick R, Shanmugan K, Dinstein I (1973) Textural features for image classification. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybernetics SMC-3:610–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jelinek HF, Jones D, Warfel M, Lucas C, Depardieu C, Aurel G (2006) Understanding fractal analysis? The case of fractal linguistics. Complexus 9:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kainz P, Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber M, Ahammer H (2015) IQM: an extensible and portable open source application for image and signal analysis in Java. PLoS One 10(1):e0116329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Landsberg PT (1984) Can entropy and “order” increase together? Phys Lett 102A(4):171–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber M, Ahammer H (2016) Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images. Chaos 26:073109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. O’Connor J (2000) The definition of the “cultural industries”. Eur J Arts Educ 2(3):15–27Google Scholar
  10. Pintilii RD, Braghina C, Draghici CC, Saghin I (2014) Territorial imbalances in the distribution of the creative industries in the North-Eastern Development Region. Procedia Social Behav Sci 122:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pintilii RD, Peptenatu D, Ciobotaru AM, Toma S-G, Grigore AM, Draghici CC, Dobrea RC, Simion AG, Andronache I, Teodorescu C, Diaconu DC (2017) Creative economies in Romania – spatial projections and trends. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 37:95–108Google Scholar
  12. Radović M, Milošević M, Peulić A, Filipović N (2013) Application of data mining algorithms for mammogram classification. Proceedings of the 13th international IEEE conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  13. Schneider CA, Rasband WS, Eliceiri KW (2012) NIH image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat Methods 9(7):671–675. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Stoian D, Peptenatu D, Pintilii R, Schvab A (2014) Territorial distribution of creative poles in Romania. Procedia Social Behav Sci 122:184–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Throsby D (1994) The production and consumption of the arts: a view of cultural economics. J Econ Lit 32(1):1–29Google Scholar
  16. Veselá D, Klimová K (2014) Knowledge-based economy vs. creative economy. Procedia Social Behav Sci 141:413–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Book and Book Chapters

  1. Anderson G (2005) Thermodynamics of natural systems. Cambridge University Press, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Araya D, Peters MA (eds) (2010) Education in the creative economy: knowledge and learning in the age of innovation. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumol WJ, Bowen WG (1966) Performing arts – the economic dilemma. Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooke P, Lazzeretti L (eds) (2008) Creative cities, cultural clusters and local economic development. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  5. Flew T (2012) The creative industries: culture and policy. SAGE, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Florida RL (2005) Cities and the creative class. Routledge, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  7. Florida RL (2014) The rise of the creative class – revisited: revised and expanded. Basic Books, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  8. Galbraith JK (1960) The liberal hour. Hamish Hamilton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Greven A, Keller G, Warnecke G (2003) Entropy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henry C (ed) (2007) Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: an international perspective. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  11. Henry C, de Bruin A (eds) (2011) Entrepreneurship and the creative economy: process, practice and policy. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  12. Hessler M, Zimmermann C (eds) (2008) Creative urban milieus: historical perspectives on culture, economy, and the city. Campus Verlag, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  13. Howkins J (2013) The creative economy: how people make money from ideas, 2nd edn. Penguin Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones C, Lorenzen M, Sapsed J (eds) (2015) The Oxford handbook of creative industries. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Kong L, O’Connor J (eds) (2009) Creative economies, creative cities: Asian-European perspectives. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  16. Landry C (2003) The creative city: a toolkit for urban innovators, 2nd edn. Comedia, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Robbins L (1963) Politics and economics: papers in political economy. Macmillan, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Seltzer K, Bentley T (1999) The creative age: knowledge and skills for the new economy. Demos, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Towse R (ed) (2011) A handbook of cultural economics, 2nd edn. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  20. Towse R, Handke C (eds) (2013) Handbook on the digital creative economy. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar
  21. Van Geenhuizen M, Nijkamp P (eds) (2012) Creative knowledge cities: myths, visions and realities. Edward Elgar, CheltenhamGoogle Scholar

On-Line Documents

  1. Bakhshi H, Windsor G (2015) The creative economy and the future of employment. NESTA. Accessed 16 Dec 2016
  2. Centre for Cultural Policy Research (CCPR) – University of Hong Kong (2003) Baseline study of Hong Kong’s creative industries. Accessed 8 Sept 2016
  3. Centrul de Analiza Integrata si Management Teritorial (CAIMT) al Universitatii din Bucuresti (2016a) Dezvoltarea teoriei contextului dinamic prin analiza rolului aridizarii în generarea si amplificarea fenomenelor regresive din sistemele teritoriale – Proiect PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0835. Accessed 18 Dec 2016
  4. Centrul de Analiza Integrata si Management Teritorial (CAIMT) al Universitatii din Bucuresti (2016b) Project UB/1365 – Territorial management based on the growth poles theory. Research Project of the University of Bucharest. Accessed 18 Dec 2016
  5. Clasificarea Activitatilor din Economia Nationala (CAEN). Coduri CAEN. Accessed 8 Dec 2016Google Scholar
  6. De Voldere I, Janssens E, Onkelinx J, Sleuwaegen L (2006) The creative economy; challenges and opportunities for the DC regions. Flanders District of Creativity. Accessed 28 Nov 2016
  7. DeNatale D, Wassall GH (2007) The creative economy: a new definition. Accessed 28 Oct 2016
  8. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) (2001) Creative industries mapping document. Accessed 25 Oct 2016
  9. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) (2016a) Creative industries: focus on employment. Accessed 25 May 2017
  10. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) (2016b) DCMS sectors economic estimates. Accessed 28 Nov 2016
  11. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) (2016c) Economic estimates of DCMS sectors – methodology. Accessed 28 Nov 2016
  12. Ernst & Young (2014) Creating growth – measuring cultural and creative markets in the EU. Accessed 18 Sept 2016
  13. Ernst & Young (2015) Cultural times – the first global map of cultural and creative industries. Accessed 18 Dec 2016
  14. European Commission (EC) (2010) Green paper. Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries. COM 183. Accessed 8 Sept 2016
  15. European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) (2013) Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: promoting cultural and creative sectors for growth and jobs in the EU COM(2012) 537 final. Accessed 18 Dec 2016
  16. Florida RL, Mellander C, Stolarick K, Silk K, Matheson Z, Hopgood M (2011) Creativity and prosperity: The Global Creativity Index. Accessed 18 Mar 2017
  17. Florida RL, Mellander C, King K (2015) The Global Creativity Index 2015. Accessed 18 Mar 2017
  18. Gadkari D (2004) Image quality analysis using GLCM. Accessed 15 Dec 2016
  19. Hajkowicz K (2015) Why is creative economy growing so strongly? WEF. Accessed 18 Dec 2016
  20. Harris C, Collins M, Cheek D (2013) America’s creative economy. Accessed 16 Dec 2016
  21. Heng TM, Choo A, Ho T (2003) Economic contributions of Singapore’s creative industries. Accessed 10 Oct 2016
  22. Higgs P, Cunningham S (2007) Australia’s creative economy: mapping methodologies. ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries & Innovation (CCI). Accessed 10 Dec 2016
  23. Hui D, Chun-Hung NG, Mok P et al (2005) A study on creativity index. Home Affairs Bureau, The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  24. Ketels C, Protsiv S (2014) European Cluster Panorama 2014. Accessed 16 June 2017
  25. Ketels C, Protsiv S (2016) European Cluster Panorama 2016. Accessed 16 June 2017
  26. Nathan M, Pratt A, Rincon-Aznar A (2015) Creative economy employment in the EU and the UK: a comparative analysis. Accessed 12 June 2017
  27. National Office for Information Economy (NOIE) (2002) Creative industries cluster study – stage one report. Accessed 12 Oct 2016
  28. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) (2002) Creative industries in New Zealand. Wellington. Accessed 10 Oct 2016
  29. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2008) Creative economy report. Accessed 28 Sept 2016
  30. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2013) Creative Economy Report 2013. Accessed 18 Sept 2016
  31. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2009) Measuring the economic contribution of cultural industries. Accessed 28 Sept 2016
  32. Weckerle C, Page R, Grand S (2016) From the creative industries to the creative economy. Accessed 11 Dec 2016
  33. World Economic Forum (WEF) (2016) Factors for enabling the creative economy. Accessed 12 Dec 2016

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sorin-George Toma
    • 1
  • Daniel Peptenatu
    • 2
  • Ion Andronache
    • 2
  • Helmut Ahammer
    • 3
  • Radu-Daniel Pintilii
    • 2
  • Cristian-Constantin Drăghici
    • 2
  • Adrian Gabriel Simion
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Administration and BusinessUniversity of BucharestBucharestRomania
  2. 2.ResearchCenter for Integrated Analysis and Territorial ManagementUniversity of BucharestBucharestRomania
  3. 3.Institute of Biophysics, Medical University of GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations