The Effects of European Integration in the Tourism Industry: Consequences of the Last Accession Waves

  • Luminiţa Nicolescu
  • Maria-Irina Ana
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


Tourism is one of the sectors that have been favoured by the creation of the EU and each new country that acceded helped the Union increase its competitiveness in tourism. According to official statistics, the number of international inbound tourists in the New Member States of the EU increased, on average, three times and in many cases this is partly a consequence of the European Union accession and market oriented policies. However, most of the tourists travelling in Europe choose Western destinations, as they are not aware of the New Member States’ tourism potential or have a wrong perception about these countries. Moreover, considerable research has been devoted to tourism in Western Europe, while rather less attention has been paid the New Member States. With these in mind, this chapter provides an examination of tourism in the New Member States of the European Union in the context of European integration.


European integration European tourism European tourism policies Exports in travel Imports in travel New Member States 


  1. Akerhielm P, Dev CS, Nodem MA (2003) Brand Europe: European integration and tourism development. Cornell Hotel Restaurant Admin Quart 44(5/6):87–93Google Scholar
  2. Almendros O (2013) Toward an age-friendly EU by 2020. AGE Platform Europe, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  3. Bâc DP (2012) Endogenous challenges for the tourism industry. Quaestus Multidiscip Res J February:231–239Google Scholar
  4. Bădulescu T (2017) România: 10 ani de turism în UE. Retrieved 16 Mar 2017
  5. Blanke J, Chiesa T (2009) The travel & tourism competitiveness report 2009 managing in a time of turbulence. World Economic Forum, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  6. Campos N, Coricelli F, Moretti L (2014) How much do countries benefit from membership in the European Union? CEPR’s Policy Portal: Retrieved 22 Nov 2016
  7. Chindris-Văsioiu O, Tocan MC (2014) The ımpact of European Union enlargement on tourism development. Knowl Horizons Econ 6(2):130–135Google Scholar
  8. Debyser A (2014, March 10) The European Union and tourism: challenges and policy responses. European Parliament: Retrieved 10 July 2016
  9. DG ENTR – Tourism Unit (2010, February 17). New action lines of the tourism sector in the framework of the Lisbon Treaty. European Commission: Retrieved 9 Mar 2017
  10. Druvaskalne ID, Slara A (2006) Tourism challenges in the Baltic states since EU enlargement. Valmiera, Latvia. Google Scholar
  11. Dupeyras A, MacCallum N (2013, February) Indicators for measuring competitiveness in tourism: a guidance document. OECD Tourism Papers, pp 20–24Google Scholar
  12. European Commission (2003) Tourism and the European Union. Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  13. European Commission (2010a, June 30) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Europe, the world’s No 1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in Europe. Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  14. European Commission (2010b) Overview of EU tourism policy. Growth – Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs: Retrieved 29 Oct 2016
  15. European Commission (2011, July 7) Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament – The EU and its neighbouring regions: a renewed approach to transport cooperation. EUR-Lex Access to European Union Law: Retrieved 12 Mar 2017
  16. European Commission (2012a) Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament – Implementation and development of the common visa policy to spur growth in the EU. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  17. European Commission (2012b) Cycling routes. Growth Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs: Retrieved 15 Nov 2016
  18. European Commission (2015) Flash Eurobarometer 414 preferences of Europeans towards tourism. European Commission, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs, TNS Political & Social. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  19. European Commission (2016) About EDEN. Growth Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs: Retrieved 15 Nov 2016
  20. European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry (2011) Calypso means tourism for all. One stop shop for EU funds: Retrieved 15 Nov 2016
  21. European Parliament (2004, August 31) European Parliament fact sheets. European Parliament Portal: Retrieved 15 Nov 2016
  22. Eurostat (2016, July) Tourism statistics – top destinations. Eurostat Statistics Explained: Retrieved 13 Mar 2017
  23. Fouloy Cd (2015, March 8). Challenges for the European tourism ındustry. Association of Accredited Public Policy Advocates to the European Union: Retrieved 8 Mar 2017
  24. General Secretariat of the European Council and the Commission (1992) Treaty on European Union. Luxembourg, LuxemburgGoogle Scholar
  25. Halkier H (2010) EU and tourism development: bark or bite. Scand J Hospitality Tourism 10(2):92–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hudman LE, Jackson RH (2003) Geography of travel and tourism, 4th edn. Delmar Learning, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Iorga M (2014, March 24) Munca la negru infloreste pe litoral. Romanian Route: Retrieved 15 Mar 2017
  28. Morata F (2002, October 8) Gobernanza multinivel en la Unión Europea. Lisboa, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  29. National Institute of Statistics (2016, March 17) Cheltuielile turistice ale nerezidenţilor în anul 2015. National Institute of Statistics: Retrieved 16 Mar 2017
  30. National Institute of Statistics Romania (2017, February) Tourism. National Institute for Statistics: Retrieved 15 Mar 2017
  31. Niculescu C (2008) Cresteri spectaculoase in turismul de afaceri. Romania Libera, March 14Google Scholar
  32. Panait A (2015, May 12) Forbes 40 cele mai bune orașe pentru afaceri, ediția 2015. Business Forbes: Retrieved 13 Dec 2016
  33. Sharpley R, Telfer DJ (2015) Tourism and development: concepts and ıssues. Channel View Publications, BristolGoogle Scholar
  34. Weiermair K (2003) Product ımprovement or ınnovation: what is the key to success in tourism? Innovation and growth in tourism. OECD Publishing, Lugano, pp 53–67Google Scholar
  35. World Tourism Organization (2016a) Methodological notes to the tourism statistics database. Madrid, Spain.
  36. World Tourism Organization (2016b) UNWTO annual report 2015. UNWTO, MadridGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Academy of Economic Studies, International Business and EconomicsBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations