Advertisement

Regional Governance of Migration in the Southern African Development Community: Migration Regimes and Their Implications for the Experience of Refugees and Migrants in South Africa

  • Tilmann Feltes
  • Saul Musker
  • Philine Scholz
Chapter

Abstract

South Africa’s migration policy has evolved over time to become increasingly restrictive, and the latest proposed legislation reflects this trend, which closely traces a global increase in restrictions on movement. The first half of this article briefly traces the history of intraregional migration in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in order to lay the groundwork for a longer and more detailed analysis of the existing migration regime in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) because they offer a clear contrast—ECOWAS has embraced and institutionalized freedom of movement, whereas SADC states have imposed very severe restrictions on transnational mobility. The second half of the article links these findings to the experience of migrants and refugees living in Johannesburg. Here it is shown that foreigners face systematic violence, exclusion, and exploitation. Hostility toward foreign nationals on the part of the South African government at least partially explains both the absence of regional governance of migration and the failure to protect or provide for foreign nationals in the country.

Keywords

Migration regimes Refugees Refugee rights Xenophobia SADC South Africa 

References

  1. Adepoju, A. (2003). Continuity and changing configurations of migration to and from the Republic of South Africa. International Migration, 41(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alence, R. (2015). Trading with the frenemy: How South Africa depends on African trade. In D. Pillay, G. Khadiagala, P. Naidoo, & R. Southall (Eds.), New South African Review (Vol. 5). Johannesburg: Wits University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Amit, R. (2012). All roads lead to rejection: Persistent bias and incapacity in South African refugee status determination. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from http://www.migration.org.za/uploads/docs/report-35.pdf
  4. Amit, R. (2015a). Queue here for corruption: Measuring irregularities in South Africa’s asylum system. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.migration.org.za/uploads/docs/lhr-acms-report---queue-here-for-corruption---july-2015.pdf
  5. Amit, R. (2015b). Understanding immigration, detention and deportation in South Africa: A summary of law, practice and human rights violations at the Lindela Detention Centre. Retrieved March 21, 2017, from http://www.migration.org.za/uploads/docs/acms-issue-brief-11---understanding-immigration-detention.pdf
  6. Budlender, D. (2014). Migration and employment in South Africa: Statistical analysis of the migration module in the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, third quarter 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.miworc.org.za/docs/MiWORC-Report-5.pdf
  7. Collins, F. (2016). Between countries. Data Journalism Academy. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://academy.code4sa.org/stories/between-countries
  8. Crush, J., Williams, V., & Peberdy, S. (2005). Migration in Southern Africa. Paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration. Geneva: GCIM.Google Scholar
  9. Department of Home Affairs. (2015). General information about visas. Retrieved August 10, 2016, from http://www.home-affairs.gov.za/index.php/types-of-visas
  10. Department of Home Affairs. (2016a). 2015 asylum statistics: Analysis and trends for the period January to December. Retrieved March 15, 2017, from http://pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/160308Asylum.pdf
  11. Department of Home Affairs. (2016b). Green paper on international migration. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/40088_gon738.pdf
  12. Department of Home Affairs. (2017). Refugee status & asylum. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from http://www.dha.gov.za/index.php/refugee-status-asylum
  13. Dodson, B., & Crush, J. (2015). Migration governance and migrant rights in the Southern African Development Community. Geneva: UNRISD.Google Scholar
  14. ECOWAS. (1975). Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States. UNTS: 14843.Google Scholar
  15. ECOWAS. (2008). Common approach on migration. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://www.unhcr.org/49e47c8f11.pdf
  16. Gigaba, M. (2015). Introductory remarks by Minister Malusi Gigaba on the occasion of the colloquium on a new international migration paradigm for South Africa, 30 June 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2016, from http://www.dha.gov.za/index.php/statements-speeches/642-introductory-remarks-by-the-minister-malusi-gigaba-on-the-occasion-of-the-colloquium-on-a-new-international-migration-paradigm-for-south-africa-in-pretoria-on-june-30th-2015
  17. Gigaba, M. (2016). Address by the minister of home affairs at the launch of the green paper on international migration at Freedom Park, Pretoria. Retrieved August 20, 2017, from http://www.gov.za/speeches/green-paper-international-migration-30-jun-2016-0000
  18. Gordon, S. (2014). Welcoming refugees in the rainbow nation: Contemporary attitudes towards refugees in South Africa. African Geographical Review, 35(1), 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2014.933705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gordon, S. (2015). Xenophobia across the class divide: South African attitudes towards foreigners 2003–2012. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 33(4), 494–509.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02589001.2015.1122870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gordon, S. (2016). Immigration policies that include or exclude: A South African public opinion study of immigration policy preferences. Social Dynamics.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02533952.2016.1238336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. International Organisation for Migration. (2013). Southern Africa: Regional migration context. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from https://www.iom.int/southern-africa
  22. Khan, F. (2007). Local integration: The preferred durable solution. Paper presented at the UNHCR’s 2007 Annual Consultations with NGOs on Local Integration: Lessons Learned and the Way Forward, Geneva, Switzerland, 26 Sep 2007.Google Scholar
  23. Landau, W., & Vanyoro, K. (2014). Adoption of the SADC Labour Migration Policy Framework. MiWORC Policy Update 1. Johannesburg: African Centre for Migration & Society.Google Scholar
  24. Lawyers for Human Rights, Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa (CoRMSA). (2010). Submission on the difficulties faced by refugees, asylum seekers and other foreign migrant children in accessing education. Retrieved March 14, 2017, from http://www.lhr.org.za/policy/lhrcormsa-submission-portfolio-committee-basic-education
  25. Lewis, J. D. (2001). Reform and opportunity: The changing role and patterns of trade in South Africa and SADC. Africa Region Working Paper Series no. 14. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  26. Moshoeshoe, M. (2012). Regional trade liberalisation as a prisoner’s dilemma: The case of the SADC Protocol on Trade. SECO/WTI Academic Cooperation Project Working Paper Series 2012/01. Bern: World Trade Institute.Google Scholar
  27. Naidu, R., Dippenaar, J., & Kariuki, P. (2015). When xenophobia rears its ugly head: A challenge to responsible and responsive governance. Retrieved March 29, 2017, from http://www.kas.de/suedafrika/en/publications/48406/
  28. Nshimbi, C. C., & Fioramonti, L. (2013). A region without borders? Policy frameworks for regional labour migrations towards South Africa. MiWORC Report. Johannesburg: African Centre for Migration and Society.Google Scholar
  29. Oucho, J., & Crush, J. (2001). Contra free movement: South Africa and the SADC migration protocols. Africa Today, 48(3), 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oucho, J. O. (2007). Migration in Southern Africa. Migration management initiatives for SADC member states. ISS Paper 157. Pretoria. Online: https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/crer/research/mariecurie/afrobrain/oucho/publications/paper157.pdf
  31. Segatti, A. (2011). Reforming South African immigration policy in the post-apartheid period (1990–2010). In A. Segatti & L. B. Landau (Eds.), Contemporary migration to South Africa: A regional development issue. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. South African Government. (2017a). Refugees Act of 1998. Retrieved April 14, 2017, from http://www.gov.za/documents/refugees-act
  33. South African Government. (2017b). Immigration Act of 2002. Retrieved April 20, 2017, from http://www.gov.za/documents/immigration-act
  34. Southern African Development Community. (1992). The Treaty of the Southern African Development Community. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://www.sadc.int/documents-publications/sadc-treaty/
  35. Statistics South Africa. (2013). Documented immigrants in South Africa. Pretoria: Stats SA.Google Scholar
  36. Statistics South Africa. (2014). Documented immigrants in South Africa. Pretoria: Stats SA.Google Scholar
  37. The Herald. (2015a). Zulu King stokes xenophobia. Retrieved March 14, 2017, from http://www.herald.co.zw/zulu-king-stokes-xenophobia/
  38. The Herald. (2015b). Zuma’s son: Govt must stop unnecessarily accommodating foreign nationals. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from http://www.herald.co.zw/zumas-son-govt-must-stop-unnecessarily-accommodating-foreign-nationals/
  39. UNHCR. (2015). UNHCR mid-year trends 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2017, from http://www.unhcr.org/56701b969.html
  40. UNHCR. (2016). Global trends: Forced displacement in 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from http://www.unhcr.org/statistics/unhcrstats/576408cd7/unhcr-global-trends-2015.html
  41. Williams, V. (2006). In pursuit of regional citizenship and identity: The free movement of persons in the Southern African development community. Policies, Issues and Actors, 19(2). Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tilmann Feltes
    • 1
  • Saul Musker
    • 2
  • Philine Scholz
    • 3
  1. 1.Durban University of Technology, Urban Futures CentreDurbanSouth Africa
  2. 2.Brenthurst FoundationJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.Goethe UniversityFrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations