Advertisement

Gender Differences in Facial Rejuvenation

  • Benjamin C. Garden
  • Jerome M. Garden
Chapter

Abstract

As the demand for facial rejuvenation procedures continue to grow, both male and female patients will seek out dermatologists to perform them. The most sought after procedures are neurotoxin and dermal fillers. There are substantial differences in genders in terms of aging, behavioral differences and facial anatomy. Having a firm understanding of these gender differences is essential in producing a successful outcome for male and female patients.

Keywords

Aging Aging face Photoaging Soft tissue fillers Soft tissue augmentation Dermal fillers Hyaluronic acid Neuromodulators BotulinumtoxinA OnabotulinumtoxinA IncobotulinumtoxinA AbobotulinumtoxinA Rhytides 

References

  1. 1.
    American Society of Dermatologic Surgery. ASDS consumer survey on cosmetic dermatologic procedures. 2016. https://asds.net/consumer-survey/. Accessed 30 March 2017.
  2. 2.
    American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: statistics. 2016. http://www.surgery.org/media/statistics. Accessed 30 March 2017.
  3. 3.
    Friedman O. Changes associated with the aging face. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2005;13(3):371–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bain J. Epidemiology, evaluation and diagnosis of andropause. Genetic Aging. 2003;6(Suppl 10):4–8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Panyakhamlerd K, Chotnopparatpattara P, Taechakraichana N, Kukulprasong A, Chaikittisilpa S, Limpaphayom K. Skin thickness in different menopausal status. J Med Assoc Thail. 1999;82(4):352–6.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kennedy C, Bastiaens MT, Bajdik CD, Willemze R, Westendorp RG, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Leiden Skin Cancer Study. Effect of smoking and sun on the aging skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120(4):548–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kadunce DP, Burr R, Gress R, Kanner R, Lyon JL, Zone JJ. Cigarette smoking: risk factor for premature facial wrinkling. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(10):840–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leow YH, Maibach HI. Cigarette smoking, cutaneous vasculature, and tissue oxygen. Clin Dermatol. 1998;16(5):579–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buller DB, Cokkinides V, Hall HI, Hartman AM, Saraiya M, Miller E, Paddock L, Glanz K. Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: review from national surveys and case studies of 3 states. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65(5 Suppl 1):S114–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Falk M, Anderson CD. Influence of age, gender, educational level and self-estimation of skin type on sun exposure habits and readiness to increase sun protection. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37(2):127–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thieden E, Philipsen PA, Sandby-Møller J, Wulf HC. Sunscreen use related to UV exposure, age, sex, and occupation based on personal dosimeter readings and sun-exposure behavior diaries. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(8):967–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Damian DL, Patterson CR, Stapelberg M, Park J, Barnetson RS, Halliday GM. UV radiation-induced immunosuppression is greater in men and prevented by topical nicotinamide. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128(2):447–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ide T, Tsutsui H, Ohashi N, Hayashidani S, Suematsu N, Tsuchihashi M, Tamai H, Takeshita A. Greater oxidative stress in healthy young men compared with premenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22(3):438–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ross A. Reflections on aesthetic facial surgery in men. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2009;17:613–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rieder EA, Mu EW, Brauer JA. Men and cosmetics: social and psychological trends of an emerging demographic. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(9):1023–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garvin HM, Ruff CB. Sexual dimorphism in skeletal browridge and chin morphologies determined using a new quantitative method. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;147(4):661–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Whitaker LA, Morales L Jr, Farkas LG. Aesthetic surgery of the supraorbital ridge and forehead structures. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986;78(1):23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gunter JP, Antrobus SD. Aesthetic analysis of the eyebrows. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;99(7):1808–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keaney TC, Alster TS. Botulinum toxin in men: review of relevant anatomy and clinical trial data. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39(10):1434–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pretorius E, Steyn M, Scholtz Y. Investigation into the usability of geometric morphometric analysis in assessment of sexual dimorphism. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006;129(1):64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Most SP, Mobley SR, Larrabee WF Jr. Anatomy of the eyelids. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2005;13(4):487–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keaney T. Male aesthetics. Skin Therapy Lett. 2015;20(2):5–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koudelová J, Brůžek J, Cagáňová V, Krajíček V, Velemínská J. Development of facial sexual dimorphism in children aged between 12 and 15 years: a three-dimensional longitudinal study. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2015;18(3):175–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rohrich RJ, Janis JE, Kenkel JM. Male rhinoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112(4):1071–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibelli D, Codari M, Rosati R, Dolci C, Tartaglia GM, Cattaneo C, Sforza C. A quantitative analysis of lip aesthetics: the influence of gender and aging. Aesthet Plast Surg. 2015;39(5):771–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    De Menezes M, Rosati R, Baga I, Mapelli A, Sforza C. Three-dimensional analysis of labial morphology: effect of sex and age. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40(8):856–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown E, Perrett DI. What gives a face its gender? Perception. 1993;22(7):829–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thayer ZM, Dobson SD. Sexual dimorphism in chin shape: implications for adaptive hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;143(3):417–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Loth SR, Henneberg M. Mandibular ramus flexure: a new morphologic indicator of sexual dimorphism in the human skeleton. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996;99(3):473–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Houstis O, Kiliaridis S. Gender and age differences in facial expressions. Eur J Orthod. 2009;31(5):459–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sjöström L, Smith U, Krotkiewski M, Björntorp P. Cellularity in different regions of adipose tissue in young men and women. Metabolism. 1972;21(12):1143–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wysong A, Joseph T, Kim D, Tang JY, Gladstone HB. Quantifying soft tissue loss in facial aging: a study in women using magnetic resonance imaging. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39(12):1895–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tsukahara K, Hotta M, Osanai O, Kawada H, Kitahara T, Takema Y. Gender-dependent differences in degree of facial wrinkles. Skin Res Technol. 2013;19(1):e65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bulpitt CJ, Markowe HL, Shipley MJ. Why do some people look older than they should? Postgrad Med J. 2001;77(911):578–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mayrovitz HN, Regan MB. Gender differences in facial skin blood perfusion during basal and heated conditions determined by laser Doppler flowmetry. Microvasc Res. 1993;45(2):211–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baker DC, Stefani WA, Chiu ES. Reducing the incidence of hematoma requiring surgical evacuation following male rhytidectomy: a 30-year review of 985 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116(7):1973–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brandt F, Swanson N, Baumann L, Huber B. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of a new botulinum toxin type a for treatment of glabellar lines: efficacy and safety. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35(12):1893–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kane MA, Brandt F, Rohrich RJ, Narins RS, Monheit GD, Huber MB, Reloxin Investigational Group. Evaluation of variable-dose treatment with a new U.S. Botulinum Toxin Type A (Dysport) for correction of moderate to severe glabellar lines: results from a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124(5):1619–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ascher B, Talarico S, Cassuto D, Escobar S, Hexsel D, Jaén P, Monheit GD, Rzany B, Viel M. International consensus recommendations on the aesthetic usage of botulinum toxin type A (Speywood Unit)--Part I: Upper facial wrinkles. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24(11):1278–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bloom JD, Green JB, Bowe W, von Grote E, Nogueira A. Cosmetic use of abobotulinumtoxinA in men: considerations regarding anatomical differences and product characteristics. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1056–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kane MA, Cox SE, Jones D, Lei X, Gallagher CJ. Heterogeneity of crow's feet line patterns in clinical trial subjects. Dermatol Surg. 2015;41(4):447–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carruthers JD, Glogau RG, Blitzer A. Advances in facial rejuvenation: botulinum toxin type a, hyaluronic acid dermal fillers, and combination therapies--consensus recommendations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:5S–30S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rohrich RJ, Huynh B, Muzaffar AR, Adams WP Jr, Robinson JB Jr. Importance of the depressor septi nasi muscle in rhinoplasty: anatomic study and clinical application. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;105(1):376–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sinno HH, Markarian MK, Ibrahim AM, Lin SJ. The ideal nasolabial angle in rhinoplasty: a preference analysis of the general population. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134(2):201–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Xie Y, Zhou J, Li H, Cheng C, Herrler T, Li Q. Classification of masseter hypertrophy for tailored botulinum toxin type A treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134(2):209e–18e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Flynn TC. Botox in men. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20(6):407–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wysong A, Kim D, Joseph T, MacFarlane DF, Tang JY, Gladstone HB. Quantifying soft tissue loss in the aging male face using magnetic resonance imaging. Dermatol Surg. 2014;40(7):786–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sorensen EP, Urman C. Cosmetic complications: rare and serious events following botulinum toxin and soft tissue filler administration. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(5):486–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kane MA. Treatment of tear trough deformity and lower lid bowing with injectable hyaluronic acid. Aesthet Plast Surg. 2005;29(5):363–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wieczorek IT, Hibler BP, Rossi AM. Injectable cosmetic procedures for the male patient. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(9):1043–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sykes JM. Applied anatomy of the temporal region and forehead for injectable fillers. J Drugs Dermatol. 2009;8(10 Suppl):s24–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Khan TT, Colon-Acevedo B, Mettu P, DeLorenzi C, Woodward JA. An anatomical analysis of the supratrochlear artery: considerations in facial filler injections and preventing vision loss. Aesthet Surg J. 2017;37(2):203–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rosen HM. Aesthetic guidelines in genioplasty: the role of facial disproportion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995;95(3):463–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rossi AM. Men’s aesthetic dermatology. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2014;33(4):188–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dayan SH, Humphrey S, Jones DH, Lizzul PF, Gross TM, Stauffer K, Beddingfield FC. Overview of ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection): a nonsurgical approach for reduction of submental fat. Dermatol Surg. 2016;42(Suppl 1):S263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Humphrey S, Sykes J, Kantor J, Bertucci V, Walker P, Lee DR, Lizzul PF, Gross TM, Beddingfield FC. ATX-101 for reduction of submental fat: a phase III randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(4):788–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dong J, Amir Y, Goldenberg G. Advances in minimally invasive and noninvasive treatments for submental fat. Cutis. 2017;99(1):20–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin C. Garden
    • 1
  • Jerome M. Garden
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Dermatology and Biomedical EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations