Infantile Hemangioma

  • Shoshana GreenbergerEmail author


Infantile hemangioma (IH), a benign vascular tumor, is the most common tumor of infancy, with an incidence of 5–10% at the end of the first year. The tumor displays a distinctive life cycle that can be separated into three phases: proliferating, involuting and involuted. Although benign, in 10% of cases IH is complicated and treatment is indicated. In recent years, beta-blockers became the treatment of choice for complicated IH.

The proliferation of IH results from both vasculogenesis; the creation of blood vessels de-novo from stem/progenitor cells, and from angiogenesis; emergence of new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. Several cellular components of IH were isolated and characterized, including hemangioma-derived progenitor/stem cells (HemSCs), Hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) and perivascular cells (Hem-pericytes).

Female sex has been long recognized as a risk factor for infantile hemangiomas, with a female-to-male ratio ranged from 1.4:1 to 3:1. The etiology for this predominance is still unclear. Possible explanations include sociological factors, such as referral bias due to a greater cosmetic concern when females are affected. In additional biological factors might play a role such as increased sensitivity of IH to the pro-angiogenic activity of estrogen or genetic susceptibility.


Infantile hemangioma Female gender Angiogenesis Vasculogenesis Propranolol β adrenergic receptor inhibitors Hemangioma progenitor cells Hemangioma endothelial cells VEGF Estrogen 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Department of DermatologyPediatric Dermatology Service, Sheba Medical CenterRamat GanIsrael
  2. 2.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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