Diffuse alopecia areata is a unique type of alopecia areata that involves widespread scalp hair thinning, instead of just the characteristic patches seen in the normal variant of AA . It is a non-scarring alopecia and can be difficult to diagnose in patients. Although the exact pathophysiology of AA is unknown, it is believed that it has an autoimmune mechanism that targets anagen stage follicles, causing disruption of hair fiber growth. The immune system could be attacking hair follicle melanocytes, dermal papilla cells, and keratinocytes, but as of yet this has not been well established. Diffuse AA is often characterized by more intense inflammation and faster progression compared to patchy AA. The inflammatory infiltrate in diffuse AA includes mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells .
- Anagen phase
- Dermal papilla cells
- Mononuclear cells
- CD3+ T cells
- CD8+ T cells
- Female preponderance
- T cells
- Anagen phase
- Scalp dysesthesias
- Follicular edema
- Cellular necrosis
- Pigment incontinence
- Telogen effluvium
- Androgenic alopecia
- Topical immunotherapy
- Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)
- Squaric acid dibutyl ester
- Diphencyprone (DPCP)
- Severe dermatitis
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Khan Mohammad Beigi, P. (2018). Diffuse Alopecia Areata. In: Alopecia Areata. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72134-7_2
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-72133-0
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-72134-7