Skip to main content

Exploring Gender and Diaspora Investment Among Diaspora Women in the UK

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
African Diaspora Direct Investment

Abstract

Although the transnational literature on gender, diaspora direct investment and remittances has burgeoned, largely overlooked in this mainstream literature are the ‘behind the scenes’ acts of diaspora women who, apart from their own economic gain, remit to help fund businesses of extended family members in the Country of Origin (COO). In this chapter, we draw on five women’s narratives of their lived experiences of migration to the UK and consequent investment activities in the COO. In so doing, we highlight not only the huge investments that women make in other people’s businesses, but how the act of investing in other people in itself empowers them to search for new and challenging business opportunities in the COO. We conclude by highlighting areas for further research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alan, G. (1985). Family life. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Amoako, E. E., & Apusigah, A. A. (2013). Gender, migration and remittances in Ghana: An overview. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, 10(1–2), 15–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arber, S., Davidson, K., & Ginn, J. (Eds.). (2003). Gender and ageing: Changing roles and relationships. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Artuc, E., Docquier, F., Ozden, C., & Parsons, C. (2015). A global assessment of human capital mobility: The role of non-OECD destinations. World Development, 65(1), 6–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bakewell, O. (2015). Crossing the continent: African diasporas within Africa. In R. Cohen & J. Story (Eds.), The impact of diaspora (pp. 7–10). Oxford: Oxford Diasporas Programme. Available at: http://www.migration.ox.ac.uk/odp/Impact%20of%20Diasporas_final.pdf.

  • Benson, J. B., Heger, L. L., Sorensen, L. C., & Wise, A. E. (2016). Somali diaspora investment survey report: Typologies, drivers, & recommendations. IFAD. Available at: http://shuraako.org/sites/default/files/SDIS-Survey-Report.pdf. Accessed 13 Aug 2017.

  • Boccagni, P. (2012). Practising motherhood at a distance: Retention and loss in Ecuadorian transnational families. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(2), 261–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boly, A., et al. (2014). Diaspora investments and firm export performance in selected sub-Saharan African countries. World Development, 59, 422–433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brzozowski, J., Cucculelli, M., & Surdej, A. (2014). Transnational ties and performance of immigrant entrepreneurs: The role of home-country conditions. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 26(7–8), 546–573.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chase, S. E. (2007). Multiple lenses, approaches, voices. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, 57(3), 651–679.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chinyowa, K. C. (1998). Gender development in Shona literature. In E. M. Chiwome & Z. Gambahaya (Eds.), Culture and development: Perspectives from the south (pp. 164–169). Harare: Mond Books Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chitauro, M. B. (1995). The role and status of Shona women as revealed in the language of a Shona cultural event. MA thesis, University of Florida.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiwome, E. M. (1996). Communication with children on sexual issues. In S. M. Mutsvairo (Ed.), An introduction to Shona Culture (pp. 51–64). Zimbabwe: Juta.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chrysostome, E. V., & Molz, R. (Eds.). (2014). Building businesses in emerging and developing countries: Challenges and opportunities. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clemens, M., Özden, Ç., & Rapoport, H. (2014). Migration and development research is moving far beyond remittances. World Development, 64, 121–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Curran, S. R., & Saguy, A. C. (2001). Migration and cultural change: A role for gender and social networks? Journal of International Women’s Studies, 2(3), 54–77. Available at: http://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol2/iss3/4.

  • Deenen, I., van der Zee, L., & Smith, L. (2015). Contesting gender roles: ‘Left-behind’ migrant spouses in Kumasi, Ghana. In T. van Naerssen, L. Smith, T. Davids, & M. H. Marchand (Eds.), Women, gender, remittances and development in the global south (pp. 67–84). London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dreby, J. (2009). Honor and virtue: Mexican parenting in the transnational context. Gender and Society, 20(1), 32–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Drori, I., Honig, B., & Wright, M. (2009). Transnational entrepreneurship: An emergent field of study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(5), 1001–1022.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123–174). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elo, M., & Jokela, P. (2014). Social ties, Bukharian Jewish diaspora and entrepreneurship: Narratives from entrepreneurs. In C. Rapoo, M. L. Coelho, & Z. Sarwar. New perspectives in diaspora experience (pp. 143–155). Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Faria, J. R., & Sachsida, A. (2012). Demographic dynamics in poor countries: Labour market conditions and gender inequalities. Journal of Development Studies, 48(1), 99–114.

    Google Scholar 

  • Featherstone, M., & Hepworth, M. (2000). Images of ageing. In J. Bond, P. Coleman, & S. Peace (Eds.), Ageing in society: An introduction to social gerontology. London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grant, R. (2007). Geographies of investment: How do the wealthy build new houses in Accra, Ghana? Urban Forum, 8(1), 31–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harmon, C., Oosterbeek, H., & Walker, I. (2003). The returns to education: Microeconomics. Journal of Economic Surveys, 17(2), 115–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harrison, L. A., & Lynch, A. B. (2005). Social role theory and the perceived gender role orientation of athletes. Sex Roles52(3), 227–236.

    Google Scholar 

  • Helmich, R. (2015). Transnational households and the dynamics of changing gender relations in Sucre, Bolivia. In T. van Naerssen, L. Smith, T. Davids, & M. H. Marchand (Eds.), Women, gender, remittances and development in the global south (pp. 84–98). London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofstede, G. (1998). Masculinity and femininity: The taboo dimension of national cultures. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, S. (2009). A mother’s heart is weighed down with stones: A phenomenological approach to the experience of transnational motherhood. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 33(1), 21–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IOM (International Organization for Migration). (2010). Gender migration and remittances. Geneva: IOM. Available at: https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/about-iom/Gender-migration-remittances-infosheet.pdf.

  • Kapteijns, L. (1999). Women’s voices in a man’s world: Women and the pastoral tradition in Northern Somali orature, c. 1899–1980. Potsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kariv, D., Menzies, T. V., Brenner, G. A., & Filion, L. J. (2009). Transnational networking and business performance: Ethnic entrepreneurs in Canada. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development21(3), 239–264.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kottegoda, S. (2006). Bringing home the money: Migration and poverty in gender politics in Sri Lanka. In S. Arya & A. Roy (Eds.), Women and migration in Asia: Poverty, gender and migration (pp. 49–71). New Delhi: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kunz, R. (2015). ‘Moneymaker and mother from afar’: The power of gender myths. In T. van Naerssen, L. Smith, T. Davids, & M. H. Marchand (Eds.), Women, gender, remittances and development in the global south (pp. 199–217). London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lo, M. S. (2016). En route to New York: Diasporic networks and the reconfiguration of female entrepreneurship in Senegal. Gender, Place and Culture, 23(4), 503–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lutz, E., & Palenga-Mollenbeck, E. (2012). Care workers, care drain, and care chains: Reflections on care, migration, and citizenship. Social Politics, 19(1), 15–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madziva, R., & Zontini, E. (2012). Transnational mothering and forced migration: Understanding the experiences of Zimbabwean mothers in the UK. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 19(4), 428–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2009). Entrepreneurship in and around institutional voids: A case study from Bangladesh. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 419–435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mashiri, P. (2000). Street remarks, address rights and the urban female: Socio-linguistic politics of gender in Harare. Zambezia, xxvii(i), 55–70. University of Zimbabwe.

    Google Scholar 

  • McCance, T. V., McKenna, H. P., & Boore, J. R. (2001). Exploring caring using narrative methodology: An analysis of the approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(3), 350–356.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGregor, J. (2014). Sentimentality or speculation? Diaspora investment, crisis economies and urban transformation. Geoforum, 56, 172–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Millman, H. L. (2013). Mothering from afar: Conceptualizing transnational motherhood. Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology, 21(1), 72–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mukama, R. (1995). Gender stereotyping in African languages. In A. Akinlabi (Ed.), Theoretical approaches to African linguistics. Trenton: African World Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mustafa, M., & Chen, S. (2010). The strength of family networks in transnational immigrant entrepreneurship. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(2), 97–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nkongolo-Bakenda, J. M., & Chrysostome, E. V. (2013). Engaging diasporas as international entrepreneurs in developing countries: In search of determinants. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 30–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ollenburger, J. C., & Moore, H. A. (1992). A sociology of women: The intersection of patriarchy, capitalism and colonialisation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orozco, M., Lowell, B. L., & Schneider, J. (2006). Gender-specific determinants of remittances: Differences in structure and motivation. Report to the World Bank Group Gender and Development Group, PREM, 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pongweni, A. (1996). Shona praise poetry as role negotiation. Gweru: Mambo Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratha, D., & Plaza, S. (2011). Harnessing diasporas. Finance and Development, 48(3), 48–51. Available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2011/09/pdf/ratha.pdf.

  • Ribeiro, A., Rezaei, S., & Dana, L.-P. (2012). Gender and family in transnational entrepreneurship. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 8(3), 409–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riddle, L., & Brinkerhoff, J. (2011). Diaspora entrepreneurs as institutional change agents: The case of Thamel.com. International Business Review, 20(6), 670–680.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Riddle, L., Hrivnak, G. A., & Nielsen, T. M. (2010). Transnational diaspora entrepreneurship in emerging markets: Bridging institutional divides. Journal of International Management, 16(4), 398–411.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, E. (1992). Peasants, traders and wives: Shona women in the history of Zimbabwe, 1870–1939. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, L., & Mazzucato, V. (2009). Constructing homes, building relationships: Migrants investments in houses. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 100, 662–673.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shire, C. (1999). Men don’t go to the moon: Language, space and masculinity in Zimbabwe. In A. Cornwall & A. Lindisfarne (Eds.), Debating masculinity. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thondhlana, J. (2010). Language and the social construction of gender roles: Roles in transition. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vaaler, P. M. (2013). Diaspora concentration and the venture investment impact of remittances. Journal of International Management, 19(1), 26–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Naerssen, T. (2015). Exploring gender and remittances. In T. van Naerssen, L. Smith, T. Davids, & M. H. Marchand (Eds.), Women, gender, remittances and development in the global south (pp. 48–66). London and New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Bank. (2017). Remittances to developing countries decline for second consecutive year. Press release. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2017/04/21/remittances-to-developing-countries-decline-for-second-consecutive-year.

  • Zontini, E. (2010). Transnational families, migration and gender. Moroccan and Filipino women in Bologna and Barcelona. Oxford: Berghahn Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roda Madziva .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Madziva, R., Siwale, J., Thondhlana, J. (2018). Exploring Gender and Diaspora Investment Among Diaspora Women in the UK. In: Hack-Polay, D., Siwale, J. (eds) African Diaspora Direct Investment. Palgrave Studies of Entrepreneurship in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72047-0_10

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics