Microbiome in Embryonic Implantation and Implantation Failure

  • Jason M. FranasiakEmail author
  • Inmaculada Moreno
  • Carlos Simon


The latest advances in microbial detection with next-generation sequencing have enabled the study of low biomass microbiomes of tissues and organs previously considered sterile, such as the endometrium. Most recently an abnormal endometrial microbiota has been associated with implantation failure, pregnancy loss, as well as other gynecological and obstetrical conditions. Further investigation of the reproductive tract microbiome in physiological and pathological conditions will allow researchers to unravel the role of bacterial communities and its function in the uterine cavity before, during, and after pregnancy. As knowledge of the reproductive tract microbiome evolves, there are data which suggest this may be an effective future tool for improving reproductive outcomes in infertile patients.


Microbiome Reproductive tract 16S ribosomal sequencing Uterine microbiome 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason M. Franasiak
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Inmaculada Moreno
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carlos Simon
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Sidney Kimmel Medical CollegeThomas Jefferson University PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.IVI-RMA of New JerseyBasking RidgeUSA
  3. 3.Research DepartmentIgenomixValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologySchool of Medicine, Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Valencia/INCLIVA, SpainIgenomixSpain
  6. 6.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  7. 7.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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