• Hasse Melbye


Research-based nomenclature for lung sounds is available, but it has only to limited extent been implemented internationally. Its use is hampered by poor interobserver agreement, at least when it comes to detailed descriptions of the sounds. In today’s clinical medicine, it will often be preferable to describe lung sounds in broad terms, such as crackles and wheezes. In the future, when computerized analyses of the lungs sounds will be available bedside, more detailed descriptions may add to the diagnostic work-up.

Supplementary material

396014_1_En_5_MOESM1_ESM.mp3 (160 kb)
Audio 1 Inspiratory crackles in patient with radiation pneumonitis (MP3 160 kb)
396014_1_En_5_MOESM2_ESM.mp3 (174 kb)
Audio 2 Pleural rubs in patient with pleural bleeding after rib fracture (MP3 173 kb)
396014_1_En_5_MOESM3_ESM.mp3 (145 kb)
Audio 3 Inspiratory and expiratory wheezes and expiratory rhonchus in patient with COPD (MP3 144 kb)


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General Practice Research UnitUIT the Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

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