Breath Sounds in Epidemiology

  • Patricias W. Garcia-Marcos
  • M. Innes Asher
  • Philippa Ellwood
  • Luis Garcia-Marcos


From all adventitious breath sounds, the only one that could be spoken of in terms of epidemiology is “wheeze”. This term has been used widely (on its own or in conjunction with other terminology) in numerous epidemiological studies carried out in the general population. This chapter deals with the different ways health professionals and patients (children) and patients’ parents understand this term and also with the validity of questions including this or similar terms to investigate the prevalence of asthma and related diseases. It includes a specific section of question validation both against physician’s diagnosis and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood is used as a paradigm of how the term “wheeze” has been used, within a standardised methodology, based on validated written and video questionnaires translated to many languages, to establish a world map of the symptom prevalence, severity and time trends of asthma in children.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricias W. Garcia-Marcos
    • 1
  • M. Innes Asher
    • 2
  • Philippa Ellwood
    • 2
  • Luis Garcia-Marcos
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Paediatrics“Santa Lucia” University General HospitalCartagenaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth HealthUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Respiratory and Allergy Units, Arrixaca Children’s University HospitalUniversity of MurciaMurciaSpain
  4. 4.IMIB Bio-health Research Institute of MurciaMurciaSpain

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