The New Year’s 2015/2016 Public Sexual Violence Debate in Germany: Media Discourse, Gendered Anti-Muslim Racism and Criminal Law

  • Ulrike M. Vieten
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Crime, Media and Culture book series (PSCMC)

Abstract

The New Year’s Eve 2015/2016 sexual attacks on non-migrant women in German public spaces near the main train stations in Cologne and Hamburg, but also in Stuttgart, have triggered far-right populist debates on the ‘integration and gender equality skills’ of new immigrants and North African male refugees, in Germany and elsewhere. This chapter discusses some of the national and international media coverage of the New Year's Eve 2015/2016 sexual attacks, and the political, legal and societal responses to it in the period January to July 2016. By this, it highlights institutional gendered anti-Muslim racism framing the perception of public sexual violence and moral panic.

References

  1. Abdelmonem, A., Bavelaar, R. E., Wynee-Hughes, E., & Galán, S. (2016). The “Taharrush” Connection: Xenophobia, Islamophobia and Sexual Violence in Germany and Beyond. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from http://religionresearch.org/closer/2016/03/12/the-taharrush-connection-xenophobia-islamophobia-and-sexual-violence-in-germany-and-beyond/
  2. Ali, P. A., & Naylor, P. B. (2013). Intimate Partner Violence: A Narrative Review of the Biological and Psychological Explanations for Its Causation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amnesty International. (2015). ‘Circles of Hell’—Domestic, Public and State Violence Against Women in Egypt. Index: MDE 12/004/2015.Google Scholar
  4. Bates, E. A., Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2014). Testing Predictions from the Male Control Theory of Men’s Partner Violence. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 42–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavanaugh, M. M. (2012). Theories of Violence: Social Science Perspectives. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 22(5), 607–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Craun, S. W., & Theriot, M. T. (2009). Misperceptions of Sex Offender Perpetration Considering the Impact of Sex Offender Registration. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 2057–2072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fekete, L. (2004). Anti-Muslim Racism and the European Security State. Race & Class, 46(1), 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fraser, N. (1990). Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy. Social Text, (25/26), 56–80.  https://doi.org/10.2307/466240
  9. Garner, S., & Salod, S. (2015). The Racialisation of Muslims: Empirical Studies to Islamophobia. Critical Sociology, 41(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldberg, D. T. (1993). Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Goldberg, D. T. (2002). The Racial State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kern, S. (2016, March 5). Germany: Migrant Rape Crisis Worsens—Public Spaces Are Becoming Perilous for Women and Children. Retrieved from https://www.gatestoneistitute.org/7557/germany-rape-migrants-crisis
  13. Mancini, C., & Pickett, J. T. (2016). The Good, the Bad and the Incomprehensible: Typifications of Victims and Offenders as Antecedents of Beliefs About Sex Crime. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(2), 257–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McDowell, L. (1983). Towards and Understanding of the Gender Division of Urban Space. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 1, 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Morgan, G., & Poynting, S. (Eds.). (2013). Global Islamophobia: Muslims and Moral Panic in the West. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  16. Nelson, C. (2015). The Domestic Is Political, and the Political Is Gendered: An Analysis of Veiled Subjects, Gendered Epistemologies and Muslim Bodies. Islamophobia Studies Journal, 3(1), 106–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Šeta, D. (2016). Forgotten Women: The Impact of Islamophobia on Muslim Women. Brussels: ENAR, European Network Against Racism.Google Scholar
  18. Turchik, J. A., Hebenstreit, C. L., & Judson, S. S. (2016). An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(2), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vieten, U. M. (2007). Situated Cosmopolitanisms: The Notion of the Other in Discourses of Cosmopolitanism in Britain and Germany. PhD Thesis, University of East London, UK.Google Scholar
  20. Vieten, U. M. (2011). Tackling the Conceptual Order of Multiple Discrimination. Situating Different and Difficult Genealogies of Race and Ethnicity. In D. Schiek & A. Lawson (Eds.), European Union Non-Discrimination Law and Intersectionality. Investigating the Triangle of Racial, Gender and Disability Discrimination (pp. 63–76). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  21. Vieten, U. M. (2012). Gender and Cosmopolitanism in Europe: A Feminist Perspective. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  22. Vieten, U. M. (2016). Notions of Conflict and “New” Citizens’ Inclusion: Post-Cosmopolitan Contestations in Germany. In U. M. Vieten & G. Valentine (Eds.), Cartographies of Differences—Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 109–134). Bern: Peter Lang Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vieten, U. M. (2017). Far Right Populism and Women: The Normalization of Gendered Anti-Muslim Racism and Gendered Culturalism in the Netherlands. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(6), 621–636.Google Scholar
  24. Walby, S., Towers, J., & Francis, B. (2014). Mainstreaming Domestic and Gender-Based Violence into Sociology and Criminology of Violence. The Sociological Review, 62(2), 187–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wodak, R. (2013). “Anything Goes!”—The Haiderization of Europe. In R. Wodak, M. KhosraviNik, & B. Mral (Eds.), Right-Wing Populism in Europe—Politics and Discourse (pp. 23–37). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Wodak, R., & Reisigl, M. (2015). Discourse and Racism. In D. Tannen, H. E. Hamilton, & D. Schiffrin (Eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (pp. 576–596). Chichester: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  27. Wolfgang, M. E., & Ferracuti, F. (1967). The Subculture of Violence: Towards and Integrated Theory of Criminology. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Yilmaz, F. (2015). From Immigrant Worker to Muslim Immigrant: Challenges for Feminism. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 22(1), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrike M. Vieten
    • 1
  1. 1.Queen’s University BelfastBelfastUK

Personalised recommendations