Introduction: The Birth of Cyberspace and the Development of Hacktivism
This chapter aims to provide the context within which hacktivism was born and developed and to demonstrate the organic nature of this type of political expression for information-based networked societies. This introductory chapter begins by explaining how the Internet came about and how it revolutionises social relations, politics, and power conflicts. It highlights the rising importance of networks and information for contemporary societies and talks about the birth of hacktivism and its role as an inevitable hybridisation of political activism with hacking in terms of both rationales and tactics. This chapter is a crucial step in familiarising the reader with the landscape within which hacktivism was born, and it develops and creates the necessary framework for the rest of the discussion.