Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Chapter

Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a challenging condition faced by clinicians. Characterized by a partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of less than or equal to 300, the syndrome is exemplified by diffuse alveolar damage and hypoxic respiratory failure. The causes can be either direct lung injury or indirect systemic factors, and diagnosis is based on clinical assessment, laboratory, and radiographic evidence. This chapter will discuss the definition, causes, and diagnosis of ARDS and then will delineate evidence-based management strategies, including low tidal volume ventilation, discussions of PEEP and driving pressure, ventilator modes, and useful adjuncts in therapy.

Keywords

Hypoxia Acute respiratory failure ARDS Lung-protective ventilation Low tidal volume ventilation Driving pressure Permissive hypercapnia 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General and Acute Care Surgery, UNC Department of SurgeryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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