Hemodynamic Monitoring

  • Nicole A. Stassen


Webster defines monitoring as “to watch, keep track of, or check usually for a special purpose.” For the surgical intensivist, the special purpose is to provide data for intervention to improve the outcome of the critically ill patient. The primary hemodynamic goal in the management of critically ill patients includes the assessment and manipulation of the circulatory system to ensure adequate tissue delivery of oxygen and essential metabolic substrates. As understanding of hemodynamics and critical illness has evolved, more sophisticated circulatory monitoring technologies have been developed. No monitoring device can be expected to improve patient outcome if it is not coupled to a treatment that itself improves outcome. Current monitoring devices should continue to be selected on a patient-specific basis, either alone or in combination with other hemodynamic monitors, until a true gold standard hemodynamic monitoring tool is developed.


Hemodynamic monitoring Swan-Ganz catheter Point-of-care cardiac ultrasound Arterial line Pulse contour wave analysis Central venous pressure Critically Ill Intensive care unit 



I have no commercial or financial conflicts of interest related to this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Merriam-Webster dictionary. [Internet]. Available from
  2. 2.
    Saugel B, Ringmaier S, Holzapfel K, Schuster T, Phillip V, Schmid RM, Huber W. Physical examination, central venous pressure, and chest radiography for the prediction of transpulmonary thermodilution-derived hemodynamic parameters in critically ill patients: a prospective trial. J Crit Care. 2011;26:402–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saugel B, Kirsche SV, Hapfelmeier A, Phillip V, Schultheiss C, Schmid RM, Huber W. Prediction of fluid responsiveness in patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2013;28:537. e1-9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perel A, Saugel B, Teboul JL, Malbrain ML, Belda FJ, Fernandez-Mondejar E, Kirov M, Wendon J, Lussmann R, Maggiorini M. The effects of advanced monitoring on hemodynamic management in critically ill patients: a pre and post questionnaire study. J Clin Monit Comput. 2016;30:511–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vincent JL, Rhodes A, Perel A, Martin GS, Della Rocca G, Vallet B, Pinsky MR, Hofer CK, Teboul JL, de Boode WP, Scolletta S, Vieillard-Baron A, De Backer D, Walley KR, Maggiorini M, Singer M. Clinical review: update on hemodynamic monitoring—a consensus of 16. Crit Care. 2011;15:229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, Beale R, Bakker J, Hofer C, Jaeschke R, Mebazaa A, Pinsky MR, Teboul JL, Vincent JL, Rhodes A. Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40:1795–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Teboul JL, Saugel B, Cecconi M, De Backer D, Hofer CK, Monnet X, Perel A, Pinsky MR, Reuter DA, Rhodes A, Squara P, Vincent JL, Scheeren TW. Less invasive hemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:1350–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Michard F, Teboul JL. Predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU patients: a critical analysis of the evidence. Chest 2002, 121:2000–2008. Vincent JL, Weil MH: fluid challenge revisited. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1333–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beaulieu Y. Bedside echocardiography in the assessment of the critically ill. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5 Suppl):S235–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beaulieu Y. Specific skill set and goals of focused echocardiography for critical care clinicians. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5 Suppl):S144–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sloth E. Echocardiography in the ICU. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(8):1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sloth E, Larsen KM, Schmidt MB, Jensen MB. Focused application of ultrasound in critical care medicine. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(2):653–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Neri L, Storti E, Lichtenstein D. Toward an ultrasound curriculum for critical care medicine. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5 Suppl):S290–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kendall JL, Hoffenberg SR, Smith RS. History of emergency and critical care ultrasound: the evolution of a new imaging paradigm. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5 Suppl):S126–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayo PH, Beaulieu Y, Doelken P, Feller-Kopman D, Harrod C, Kaplan A, Oropello J, Vieillard-Baron A, Axler O, Lichtenstein D, et al. American College of Chest Physicians/la Societe de reanimation de langue Francaise statement on competence in critical care ultrasonography. Chest. 2009;135(4):1050–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cahalan MK, Abel M, Goldman M, Pearlman A, Sears-Rogan P, Russell I, Shanewise J, Stewart W, Troianos C. American Society of Echocardiography and Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists task force guidelines for training in perioperative echocardiography. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(6):1384–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pershad J, Myers S, Plouman C, Rosson C, Elam K, Wan J, Chin T. Bedside limited echocardiography by the emergency physician is accurate during evaluation of the critically ill patient. Pediatrics. 2004;114(6):e667–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Via G, Hussain A, Wells M, Reardon R, ElBarbary M, Noble VE, Tsung JW, Neskovic AN, Price S, Oren-Grinberg A, et al. International evidencebased recommendations for focused cardiac ultrasound. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2014;27(7):683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vignon P, Dugard A, Abraham J, Belcour D, Gondran G, Pepino F, Marin B, Francois B, Gastinne H. Focused training for goal-oriented hand-held echocardiography performed by noncardiologist residents in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(10):1795–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alherbish A, Priestap F, Arntfield R. The introduction of basic critical care echocardiography reduces the use of diagnostic echocardiography in the intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2015;30(6):1419.e7–1419.e11. Cowie B. Focused cardiovascular ultrasound performed by anesthesiologists in the perioperative period: feasible and alters patient management. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009;23(4):450–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fedson S, Neithardt G, Thomas P, Lickerman A, Radzienda M, DeCara JM, Lang RM, Spencer KT. Unsuspected clinically important findings detected with a small portable ultrasound device in patients admitted to a general medicine service. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003;16(9):901–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferrada P, Anand RJ, Whelan J, Aboutanos MA, Duane T, Malhotra A, Ivatury R. Limited transthoracic echocardiogram: so easy any trauma attending can do it. J Trauma. 2011;71(5):1327–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ferrada P, Wolfe L, Anand RJ, Whelan J, Vanguri P, Malhotra A, Goldberg S, Duane T, Aboutanos M. Use of limited transthoracic echocardiography in patients with traumatic cardiac arrest decreases the rate of nontherapeutic thoracotomy and hospital costs. J Ultrasound Med. 2014;33(10):1829–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carr BG, Dean AJ, Everett WW, BS K, Mark DG, Okusanya O, Horan AD, Gracias VH. Intensivist bedside ultrasound (INBU) for volume assessment in the intensive care unit: a pilot study. J Trauma. 2007;63(3):495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Atkinson PR, McAuley DJ, Kendall RJ, Abeyakoon O, Reid CG, Connolly J, Lewis D. Abdominal and cardiac evaluation with sonography in shock (ACES): an approach by emergency physicians for the use of ultrasound in patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Emerg Med J. 2009;26(2):87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Breitkreutz R, Price S, Steiger HV, Seeger FH, Ilper H, Ackermann H, Rudolph M, Uddin S, Weigand MA, Muller E, et al. Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: a prospective trial. Resuscitation. 2010;81(11):1527–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferrada P, Murthi S, Anand RJ, Bochicchio GV, Scalea T. Transthoracic focused rapid echocardiographic examination: real-time evaluation of fluid status in critically ill trauma patients. J Trauma. 2011;70(1):56–62. Jensen MB, Sloth E, Larsen KM, Schmidt MB. Transthoracic echocardiography for cardiopulmonary monitoring in intensive care. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2004;21(9):700Y707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manasia AR, Nagaraj HM, Kodali RB, Croft LB, Oropello JM, Kohli-Seth R, Leibowitz AB, DelGiudice R, Hufanda JF, Benjamin E, et al. Feasibility and potential clinical utility of goal-directed transthoracic echocardiography performed by noncardiologist intensivists using a small hand-carried device (SonoHeart) in critically ill patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005;19(2):155–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Perera P, Mailhot T, Riley D, Mandavia D. The RUSH exam: rapid ultrasound in shock in the evaluation of the critically lll. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28(1):29–56. viiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rose JS, Bair AE, Mandavia D, Kinser DJ. The UHP ultrasound protocol: a novel ultrasound approach to the empiric evaluation of the undifferentiated hypotensive patient. Am J EmergMed. 2001;19(4):299–302. Fletcher SN, Grounds RM. Critical care echocardiography: cleared for take up. Br J Anaesth. 2012;109(4):490–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferrada P. Image-based resuscitation of the hypotensive patient with cardiac ultrasound: an evidence-based review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;80(3):511–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Leung JM, Levine EH. Left ventricular end-systolic cavity obliteration as an estimate of intraoperative hypovolemia. Anesthesiology. 1994;81(5):1102–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Maizel J, Airapetian N, Lorne E, Tribouilloy C, Massy Z, Slama M. Diagnosis of central hypovolemia by using passive leg raising. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(7):1133–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zengin S, Al B, Genc S, Yildirim C, Ercan S, Dogan M, Altunbas G. Role of inferior vena cava and right ventricular diameter in assessment of volume status: a comparative study: ultrasound and hypovolemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31(5):763–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Barbier C, Loubieres Y, Schmit C, et al. Respiratory changes in inferior vena cava diameter are helpful in predicting fluid responsiveness in ventilated septic patients. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:1740–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Feissel M, Michard F, Faller JP, et al. The respiratory variation in inferior vena cava diameter as a guide to fluid therapy. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:1834–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gudmundsson P, Rydberg E, Winter R, Willenheimer R. Visually estimated left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography is closely correlated with formal quantitative methods. Int J Cardiol. 2005;101(2):209–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kaul S, Stratienko AA, Pollock SG, Marieb MA, Keller MW, Sabia PJ. Value of two-dimensional echocardiography for determining the basis of hemodynamic compromise in critically ill patients: a prospective study. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1994;7(6):598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moore CL, Rose GA, Tayal VS, Sullivan DM, Arrowood JA, Kline JA. Determination of left ventricular function by emergency physician echocardiography of hypotensive patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(3):186–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sabia P, Abbott RD, Afrookteh A, Keller MW, Touchstone DA, Kaul S. Importance of two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function in patients presenting to the emergency room with cardiac-related symptoms. Circulation. 1991;84(4):1615–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Expert Round Table on Echocardiography in ICU. International consensus statement on training standards for advanced critical care echocardiography. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40(5):654–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cureton EL, Yeung LY, Kwan RO, Miraflor EJ, Sadjadi J, Price DD, Victorino GP. The heart of the matter: utility of ultrasound of cardiac activity during traumatic arrest. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(1):102–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Blaivas M, Fox JC. Outcome in cardiac arrest patients found to have cardiac standstill on the bedside emergency department echocardiogram. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8(6):616–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hernandez C, Shuler K, Hannan H, Sonyika C, Likourezos A, Marshall JCAUSE. Cardiac arrest ultra-sound ExamVa better approach to managing patients in primary non-arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2008;76(2):198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ribeiro A, Lindmarker P, Juhlin-Dannfelt A, Johnsson H, Jorfeldt L. Echocardiography Doppler in pulmonary embolism: right ventricular dysfunction as a predictor of mortality rate. Am Heart J. 1997;134(3):479–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bova C, Greco F, Misuraca G, Serafini O, Crocco F, Greco A, Noto A. Diagnostic utility of echocardiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21(3):180–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Labovitz AJ, Noble VE, Bierig M, Goldstein SA, Jones R, Kort S, Porter TR, Spencer KT, Tayal VS, Wei K. Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergent setting: a consensus statement of the American Society of Echocardiography and American College of Emergency Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23(12):1225–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Levitt MA, Jan BA. The effect of real time 2-D-echocardiography on medical decision-making in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2002;22(3):229–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Plummer D. Principles of emergency ultrasound and echocardiography. Ann Emerg Med. 1989;18(12):1291–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ball CG, Williams BH, Wyrzykowski AD, Nicholas JM, Rozycki GS, Feliciano DVA. Caveat to the performance of pericardial ultrasound in patients with penetrating cardiac wounds. J Trauma. 2009;67(5):1123–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wright J, Jarman R, Connolly J, Dissmann P. Echocardiography in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2009;26(2):82–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cerqueira MD, Arrighi JA, Geiser EA. Physician certification in cardiovascular imaging: rationale, process, and benefits. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;1(6):801–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jensen L, Yakimets J, Teo KA. Review of impedance cardiography. Heart Lung. 1995;24:183–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kubicek WG, Karnegis JN, Patterson RP, et al. Development and evaluation of an impedance cardiac output system. Aerosp Med. 1966;37:1208–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sramek BB, Rose DM, Miyamoto A. Stroke volume equation with a linear base impedance model and its accuracy, as compared to thermodilution and magnetic flow meter techniques in humans and animals. Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on electrical Bioimpedance. Zadar (Yugoslavia), 1983. p. 38–41.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nagel JG, Shyu LY, Reddy SP, et al. New signal processing techniques for improved precision of noninvasive impedance cardiography. Ann Biomed Eng. 1989;17:517–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harvey S, Harrison D, Singer M, et al. Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PACMan): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366:472–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Binanay C, Califf RM, Hasselblad V, et al. Evaluation study of congestive heart failure and pulmonary artery catheterization effectiveness. JAMA. 2005;294(13):1625–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Morris AM, Bender JS, Smith-Meek MA, Jones CE. Routine pulmonary artery catheterization does not reduce morbidity and mortality of elective vascular surgery: results of a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 1997;226(3):229–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Connors AF, Speroff T, Dawson NV, et al. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. JAMA. 1996;276:889–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rhodes A, Cusack RJ, Newman PJ, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28:256–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Isaacson IJ, Lowdon JD, Berry AJ, et al. The value of pulmonary artery catheter and central venous monitoring in patients undergoing abdominal aortic reconstruction surgery: a comparative study of two selected, randomized, groups. J Vasc Surg. 1990;12:754–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Soni N. Swan song for the swan-Ganz catheter? The use of pulmonary artery catheters probably needs re-evaluation-but they should not be banned. BMJ. 1996;3313:763–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Morris AM, Chapman RH, Gardner RM. Frequency of wedge pressure errors in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 1985;13:705–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Iberti TJ, Fischer EP, Leibowitz AB, et al. A multicenter study of physicians’ knowledge of the pulmonary artery catheter. JAMA. 1990;264:2928–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gnaegi A, Feihl F, Perret C. Intensive care physicians’ insufficient knowledge of right heart catheterization at the bedside: time to act? Crit Care Med. 1997;25:213–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Michard F, Boussat S, Chemla D, et al. Relation between respiratory changes in arterial pulse pressure and fluid responsiveness in septic patients with acute circulatory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:134–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Funk DJ, Jacobsohn E, Kumar A. The role of venous return in critical illness and shock: part II-shock and mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:573–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marik PE, Cavallazzi R, Vasu T, Hirani A. Dynamic changes in arterial waveform derived variables and fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:2642–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hong JQ, He HF, Chen ZY, ZS D, Liu WF, Weng PQ, Huang HB. Comparison of stroke volume variation with pulse pressure variation as a diagnostic indicator of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Saudi Med J. 2014;35:261–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Berkenstadt H, Margalit N, Hadani M, et al. Stroke volume variation as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing brain surgery. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:984–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Montenij LJ, de Waal EE, Buhre WF. Arterial waveform analysis in anesthesia and critical care. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011;24:651–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Michard F. Changes in arterial pressure during mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:419–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Vallee F, Richard JCM, Mari A, Gallas T, Arsac E, Verlaan PS, Chousterman B, Samii K, Genestal M, Fourcade O. Pulse pressure variations adjusted by alveolar driving pressure to assess fluid responsiveness. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1004–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lakhal K, Ehrmann S, Benzekri-Lefevre D, Runge I, Legras A, Dequin P, Mercier E, Wolff M, Regnier B, Boulain T. Respiratory pulse pressure variation fails to predict fluid responsiveness in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2011;15:R85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Oliveira-Costa CD, Friedman G, Vieira SR, Fialkow L. Pulse pressure variation and prediction of fluid responsiveness in patients ventilated with low tidal volumes. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67:773–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cook DJ, Simel DL. Does this patient have abnormal central venous pressure? JAMA. 1996;275(8):630–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pinsky MR. The hemodynamic consequences of mechanical ventilation: an evolving story. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23:493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bendjelid K, Romand JA. Fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients: a review of indices used in intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:352–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marik PE, Baram M, Vahid B. Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systematic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares. Chest. 2008;134:172–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Marik PE, Cavallazzi R. Does the central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness. An updated meta-analysis and a plea for some common sense. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:1774–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Teboul JL, Monnet X. Prediction of volume responsiveness in critically ill patients with spontaneous breathing activity. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008;14:334–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Magder S, Lagonidis D, Erice F. The use of respiratory variations in right atrial pressure to predict the cardiac output response to PEEP. J Crit Care. 2001;16:108–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Magder S. How to use central venous pressure measurements. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2005;11:264–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barnes GE, Laine GA, Giam PY, et al. Cardiovascular response to elevation of intra-abdominal hydrostatic pressure. Am J Phys. 1985;248:R208–13.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Magder S, Georgiadis G, Cheong T. Respiratory variations in right atrial pressure predict the response to fluid challenge. J Crit Care. 1992;7:76–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kumar A, Anel R, Bunnell E, et al. Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure fail to predict ventricular filling volume, cardiac performance, or the response to volume infusion in normal subjects. Critical Care Med. 2004;32:691–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Malbrain MLI. It wise not to think about intraabdominal hypertension in the ICU? Curr Opin Crit Care. 2004;10:132–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pinsky MR. Clinical significance of pulmonary artery occlusion pressure. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:175–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Vieillard-Baron A, Slama M, Charron C, et al. A pilot study on safety and clinical utility of a single-use 72-hour indwelling transesophageal echocardiography probe. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:629–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Singer M. Oesophageal doppler. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2009;15(3):244–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dark PM, Singer M. The validity of trans-esophageal Doppler ultrasonography as a measure of cardiac output in critically ill adults. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:2060–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schober P, Loer SA, Schwarte LA. Perioperative hemodynamic monitoring with trans-esophageal Doppler technology. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(2):340–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kamal GD, Symreng T, Starr J. Inconsistent esophageal Doppler cardiac output during acute blood loss. Anesthesiology. 1990;72:95–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    List W, Gravenstein N, Banner T, et al. Interaction in sheep between mean arterial pressure and cross sectional area of the descending aorta: implications for esophageal Doppler monitoring. Anesthesiology. 1987;67:178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Seoudi HM, Perkal MF, Hanrahan A, et al. The esophageal Doppler monitor in mechanically ventilated surgical patients: does it work? J Trauma. 2003;55(4):720–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Valtier B, Cholley BP, Belot JP, et al. Noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output in critically ill patients using transesophageal Doppler. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:77–83. 90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lefrant J, Bruelle P, Aya A, et al. Training is required to improve the reliability of esophageal Doppler to measure cardiac output in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 1998;24:347–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Madan AK, UyBarreta VV, Aliabadi-Wahle S, et al. Esophageal Doppler ultrasound monitor versus pulmonary artery catheter in the hemodynamic management of critically ill surgical patients. J Trauma. 1999;46(4):607–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Singer M, Bennett ED. Noninvasive optimization of left ventricular filling using esophageal Doppler. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(9):1132–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Acute Care Surgery DivisionUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations