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Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Asad Azim
  • Bellal Joseph
Chapter

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the disruption of brain function due to an external force. It remains the leading cause of death and disability among trauma patients. Each year, more than 1.5 million Americans suffer from TBI. The management of TBI patients is complex and includes specialized prehospital care, in-hospital acute care management, and for some, long-term rehabilitation. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are imperative to promote optimum outcomes and reduce mortality. The pathophysiology behind this “silent” epidemic is complex. Rapid advancements in the field of medicine over the past decades have led to better understanding of pathophysiology associated with TBI. This has resulted in improvements in both management guidelines and critical care, which have, in turn, led to a pronounced reduction in morbidity and mortality following TBI. In this chapter, we describe the classification, pathophysiology, and critical care treatments now considered as best practices for the management of TBI.

Keywords

Traumatic brain injury Decompressive craniotomy Intracranial pressure Monitoring Hyperosmolar therapy 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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