Advertisement

A Life Course and Networks Approach to Prison Therapeutic Communities

  • Derek A. KreagerEmail author
  • Martin Bouchard
  • George De Leon
  • David R. Schaefer
  • Michaela Soyer
  • Jacob T. N. Young
  • Gary Zajac
Chapter
Part of the Frontiers in Sociology and Social Research book series (FSSR, volume 2)

Abstract

Within criminology, life course theory and research have linked positive role transitions (e.g., marriage, parenthood, and employment) with criminal desistance over time. Simultaneously, studies suggest that high-risk offenders are unlikely to enter or remain committed to such transitions, challenging interventions based on life course principles. Prison-based therapeutic communities (TCs) offer a potential exception to this pattern and have proven particularly effective at reducing drug dependence and criminal recidivism by integrating inmates into positive peer environments. From a life course perspective, these programs emphasize human agency and linked lives as mechanisms for behavioral change. However, the peer-network processes underlying TC programming remain virtually untested. To fill this void, this chapter applies life course and social network perspectives to understand prison TC processes and demonstrate the feasibility and promise of our approach with preliminary findings from a cross-sectional study of a small TC (N = 20) in a maximum-security men’s prison.

Keywords

Social networks Prison Therapeutic communities Rehabilitation Life course Criminology Treatment Substance use 

References

  1. Akers, R. L. (2009). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Alwin, D. F., Cohen, R. L., & Newcomb, T. M. (1991). Political attitudes over the life span: The Bennington women after 50 years. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bahr, S. J., Masters, A. L., & Taylor, B. M. (2012). What works in substance abuse treatment programs for offenders? The Prison Journal, 92(2), 155–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belenko, S., & Peugh, J. (2005). Estimating drug treatment needs among state prison inmates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77(3), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blokland, A. A. J., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2010). Considering criminal continuity: Testing for heterogeneity and state dependence in the association of past to future offending. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 43(3), 526–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bushway, S. D., & Apel, R. (2012). A signaling perspective on employment-based reentry programming. Criminology & Public Policy, 11(1), 21–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bushway, S. D., & Paternoster, R. (2013). Desistance from crime: A review and ideas for moving forward. In C. L. Gibson & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Handbook of life-course criminology (pp. 213–231). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Leon, G. (2000). The therapeutic community: Theory, model, and method. New York: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Elder, G. H. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(1), 4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elder, G. H. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 990–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giordano, P. C., Schroeder, R. D., & Cernkovich, S. A. (2007). Emotions and crime over the life-course: A neo-meadian perspective on criminal continuity and change. American Journal of Sociology, 112(6), 1603–1661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gonzales, A. R., Schofield, R. B., & Schmitt, G. R. (2006). Drug courts: The second decade. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.Google Scholar
  14. Jensen, E. L., & Kane, S. L. (2012). The effects of therapeutic community on recidivism up to four years after release from prison: A multisite study. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(8), 1075–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. King, R. D., Massoglia, M., & MacMillan, R. (2007). The context of marriage and crime: Gender, the propensity to marry, and offending in early adulthood. Criminology, 45(1), 33–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kreager, D. A., Schaefer, D. R., Bouchard, M., Haynie, D. L., Wakefield, S., Young, J., & Zajac, G. (2016). Toward a criminology of inmate networks. Justice Quarterly, 33(6), 1000–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kreager, D. A., Young, J. T. N., Haynie, D. L., Bouchard, M., Schaefer, D. R., & Zajac, G. (2017). Where ‘old heads’ prevail: Inmate hierarchy in a men’s prison unit. American Sociological Review, 82(4), 685–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maruna, S. (2001). Making good: How ex-convicts reform and build their lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 415–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mitchell, O., MacKenzie, D. L., & Wilson, D. (2012a). The effectiveness of incarceration-based drug treatment on criminal behavior: A systematic review. Campbell systematic reviews, 8(18).Google Scholar
  21. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., Eggers, A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2012b). Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: A meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(1), 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moody, J., & White, D. R. (2003). Structural cohesion and embeddedness: A hierarchical concept of social groups. American Sociological Review, 68(1), 103–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mumola, C. J., & Karberg, J. C. (2006). Drug use and dependence, state and federal prisoners, 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2002). Research report series: Therapeutic community. http://archives.drugabuse.gov/researchreports/Therapeutic/. Accessed 20 Jan 2016.
  25. Newcomb, T. M. (1952). Attitude development as a function of reference groups: The Bennington study. In G. E. Swanson, T. M. Newcomb, & E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology (pp. 420–430). New York: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
  26. Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDC). (2013). 2012 Annual report, arrestee drug abuse monitoring program II. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President.Google Scholar
  27. Osgood, D. W. (2012). Some future trajectories for life course criminology. In R. Loeber & B. C. Welsh (Eds.), The future of criminology (pp. 3–10). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paternoster, R., & Bushway, S. D. (2009). Desistance and the “feared self”: Toward an identity theory of criminal desistance. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 99(4), 1103–1156.Google Scholar
  29. Perfas, F. B. (2004). Therapeutic community: Social systems perspective. Lincoln: iUniverse Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Rempel, M., Zweig, J. M., Lindquist, C. H., Roman, J. K., Rossman, S. B., & Kralstein, D. (2012). Multi-site evaluation demonstrates effectiveness of adult drug courts. Judicature, 95(4), 154.Google Scholar
  31. Sacks, J. Y., Sacks, S., Chaple, M., McKendrick, K., & Cleland, C. M. (2012). Randomized trial of a reentry modified therapeutic community for offenders with co-occurring disorders: Crime outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 42(3), 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Desistance from crime over the life course. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 295–309). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schaefer, D. R., Bouchard, M., Young, J. T. N., & Kreager, D. A. (2017). Friends in locked places: An investigation of prison inmate network structure. Social Networks, 51, 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Snijders, T. A. (1996). Stochastic actor-oriented models for network change. Journal of mathematical sociology, 21(1–2), 149–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Soyer, M. (2014). The imagination of desistance: A juxtaposition of the construction of incarceration as a turning point and the reality of recidivism. British Journal of Criminology, 54(1), 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stevens, A. (2013). Offender rehabilitation and therapeutic communities: Enabling change the TC way. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Steyee, J. (2013). Program performance report: Joint/enhancement grantees of the adult drug court discretionary grant program. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  38. Taxman, F. S., Perdoni, M. L., & Harrison, L. D. (2007). Drug treatment services for adult offenders: The state of the state. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32(3), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Visher, C. A., Winterfield, L., & Coggeshall, M. B. (2005). Ex-offender employment programs and recidivism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(3), 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wakefield, S., & Apel, R. (2016). Criminal justice and the life course. In M. J. Shanahan, J. T. Mortimer, & M. K. Johnson (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 301–319). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Warren, K. L., Doogan, N., De Leon, G., Phillips, G. S., Moody, J., & Hodge, A. (2013a). Short-run prosocial behavior in response to receiving corrections and affirmations in three therapeutic communities. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 52(4), 270–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Warren, K. L., Hiance, D., Doogan, N., De Leon, G., & Phillips, G. S. (2013b). Verbal feedback in therapeutic communities: Pull-ups and reciprocated pull-ups as predictors of graduation. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(4), 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wellman, B., & Berkowitz, S. D. (1988). Social structures: A network approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Welsh, W. N., & Zajac, G. (2013). A multisite evaluation of prison-based drug treatment: Four-year follow-up results. The Prison Journal, 93(3), 251–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wexler, H. K., & Prendergast, M. L. (2010). Therapeutic communities in United States’ prisons: Effectiveness and challenges. Therapeutic Communities, 31(2), 157–175.Google Scholar
  46. Wimmer, A., & Lewis, K. (2010). Beyond and below racial homophily: ERG models of a friendship network documented on facebook. American Journal of Sociology, 116(2), 583–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek A. Kreager
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martin Bouchard
    • 2
  • George De Leon
    • 3
  • David R. Schaefer
    • 4
  • Michaela Soyer
    • 5
  • Jacob T. N. Young
    • 6
  • Gary Zajac
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and CriminologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.School of CriminologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of SociologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  5. 5.Department of SociologyHunter CollegeNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations