Advertisement

Transformation of the South African Energy System: Towards Participatory Governance

  • Vain D. B. Jarbandhan
  • Nadejda Komendantova
  • Romao Xavier
  • Elvis Nkoana
Chapter

Abstract

Background & Significance of the topic: Approximately 10% of South Africa’s population has no access to electricity. Responding to this need for affordable and sustainable energy requires solutions that are environmentally friendly and not detrimental to human health. It has been demonstrated in countries such as Germany, Denmark, Canada and Wales that public participation contributes to the social acceptance of renewable energy. This study proposes that Arnstein’s Ladder of Citizen Participation can be used to underpin the concept of stakeholder participation in emerging economies like South Africa, and that participation in renewable energy projects is dependent on leadership that is ‘ecologically’ attuned. From the onset, a renewable energy project that is geared for success must include opportunities for the public to participate in decision- making and to feel part of the success of the project. Methodology: A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted. Application/Relevance to systems analysis: This Chapter demonstrates how promoting public participation through applications such as climate modeling; assessment of impacts, vulnerability, mitigation, and adaptation options; and policy analysis can contribute to transforming a country’s energy sector. Policy and/or practice implications: This study has special relevance for policy making in the energy sector in South Africa as it assists with long term projections for good governance and transformation of the energy sector. Incorporating public participation as part of the public policy process is essential to the success of transforming South Africa’s energy system. Additionally, investing in building a cadet of environmental leaders, especially in the public sector, would mitigate environmental degradation and embrace a transition to cleaner energy. Discussion and conclusion: The need to incorporate public participation within the project cycle and institutionalise it as part of the whole process is an important success feature, along with investing in the development of environmental leadership and monitoring and evaluation initiatives.

Keywords

Participatory governance - Arnstein’s Ladder Clean energy solutions Energy reform Renewable energy  

References

  1. Achillas, C., Vlachokostas, C., Moussiopoulos, N., Banias, G., Kafetzopoulos, G., & Karagiannidis, A. (2011). Social acceptance for the development of a waste-to-energy plant in an urban area. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55(9–10), 857–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Africa Progress Report. (2015). Africa Progress Panel. http://www.africaprogresspanel.org/publications/policy-papers/2015-africa-progress-report. Accessed 2 May 2016.
  3. Arnstein, S. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barthes, Y., & Mays, C. (1998). High profile and deep strategy: Communication and information practices in France’s underground laboratory siting process. Technical Note SEGR/98, 18, Institute De Protection Et De Surete Nucleaire.Google Scholar
  5. Batel, S., & Devine-Wright, P. (2015). A critical and empirical analysis of the national-local ‘gap’ in public responses to large-scale energy infrastructures. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 58(6), 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battaglini, A., Komendantova, N., Brtnik, P., & Patt, A. (2012). Perception of barriers for expansion of electricity grids in the European Union. Energy Policy, 47, 254–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beierle, T., & Cayford, J. (2002). Democracy in practice: Public participation in environmental decisions. RFF Press: An Imprint of Routledge. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, D., Gray, T., & Haggett, C. (2005). Policy, participation, and the “social gap” in wind farm siting decisions. Environmental Politics, 14, 460–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boiral, O., Cayer, M., & Baron, C. M. (2007). The action logics of environmental leadership: A developmental perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 479–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burningham, K., Barnett, J., & Thrush, D. (2006). The limitations of the NIMBY concept for understanding public engagement with renewable energy technologies: A literature review. Beyond Nimbyism research project Working Paper. http://geography.exeter.ac.uk/beyond_nimbyism/deliverables/bn_wp1_3.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2016.
  11. Coelho, V., & Favareto, A. (2006). Participatory governance and development: In search of a casual nexus. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, J. J., Reichl, J., & Schmidthaler, M. (2014). Re-focussing research efforts on the public acceptance of energy infrastructure: A critical review. Energy, 76, 4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conference of the Parties, Twenty-first session. (COP 21). Paris, 30 November to 11 December (2015). ADOPTION OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT: Proposal by the President, Draft decision -/COP.21.Google Scholar
  14. D’Souza, D., & Yiridoe, E. K. (2014). Social acceptance of wind energy development and planning in rural communities of Australia: A consumer analysis. Energy Policy, 74, 263–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Araujo, M. S. M., & De Freitas, M. A. V. (2008). Acceptance of renewable energy innovation in Brazil-case study of wind energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12, 584–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Department of Energy. (1998). White paper on the energy policy of the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  17. Department of Energy. (2009). Digest of South African energy statistics. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Energy. (2013). Integrated Resource Plan for Electricity (IRP) 2010-2030 updated report. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  19. Department of Energy. (2015). State of renewable energy in South Africa. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  20. Department of Environment. (2011). National climate change response policy white paper. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  21. Department of Minerals and Energy. (2003). Republic of South Africa white paper on renewable energy. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  22. Devine-Wright, P. (2005). Beyond NIMBYism: Towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy. Wind Energy, 8(2), 125–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Devine-Wright, P. (2008). Reconsidering public acceptance of renewable energy technologies: A critical review. In M. Grubb, T. Jamasb, & M. Pollitt (Eds.), Delivering a low carbon electricity system. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Devine-Wright, P. (2009). Rethinking NIMBYism: The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place-protective action. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 19(6), 426–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans, B., Parks, J., & Theobald, K. (2011). Urban wind power and the private sector: Community benefits, social acceptance and public engagement. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 54(2), 227–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. (2014). Solar energy systems. Internet source. www.ise.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ise/en/. Accessed on 12 Apr 2017.
  27. Götz, G., Khanyile, S., & Katumba, S. (2016). Voting patterns in the 2016 local government elections. Gauteng City Region Observatory. Retrieved on 12 April 2017 from http://www.gcro.ac.za/outputs/map-of-the-month/detail/voting-patterns-in-the-2016-local-government-elections.
  28. Gruebler, A., Wilson, C., & Nemet, G. (2016). Apples, oranges, and consistent comparisons of the temporal dynamics of energy transitions. Energy Research and Social Science, 22, 18–25.Google Scholar
  29. Haggett, C. (2009). Public Engagement in Planning for Renewable Energy. In Davoudi, S., Crawford, J. & Mehmood, A. (Eds.). Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. Routledge, 297–307.Google Scholar
  30. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Summary for policymakers. In: O. Edenhofer, Pichs-Madruga R., Sokona Y., Farahani E., Kadner S., Seyboth K., et al. (Eds.), Climate Change 2014, Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Integrated Resource Plan. (2010). Executive Summary and Report. Department of Energy. Republic of South Africa. Government Printer. Pretoria.Google Scholar
  32. International Energy Association. (2014). Africa Energy Outlook. A Focus on Energy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Paris, France.Google Scholar
  33. International Renewable Energy Agency. (2014). Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2014. International Renewable Energy Agency.Google Scholar
  34. International Renewable Energy Agency. (2015). Africa 2030: Roadmap for renewable energy future. International Renewable Energy Agency. www.irena.org/remap. Accessed on 20 Aug 2017.
  35. Jarbandhan, D. B. (2014). Adopting an environmentally—Friendly leadership style for the South African Public Sector: A literature review. Journal of Public Administration, 49, 1.Google Scholar
  36. Jami, A. A., & Walsh, P. R. (2016). Wind power deployment: The role of public participation in decision-making in Ontario, Canada. Sustainability. Available at www.sustainability08-0073. Accessed on 15 Aug 2017.
  37. Jasanoff, S. (1998). The political science of risk perception. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 59(1), 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaldellis, J. K. (2005). Social attitude towards wind energy applications in Greece. Energy Policy, 33(5), 595–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keast, R., & Brown, K. (2006). Adjusting to new ways of working: Experiments with service delivery in the public sector. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 65(4), 41–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klass, A. B. (2012). Renewable Energy and the Public Trust Doctrine, 45 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 1021 (2012). Available at http://scholarship.law.umn.edu/faculty_articles/34. Accessed 15 Aug 2017.
  41. Komendantova, N., Voccciante, M., & Battaglini, A. (2015). Can the BestGrid process improve stakeholder involvement in electricity transmission projects? Energy, 2015(8), 9407–9433.  https://doi.org/10.3390/en8099407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kunreuther, H., Linnerooth-Bayer, J., & Fitzgerald, K. (1994). Siting hazardous facilities: Lessons from Europe and America. Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center.Google Scholar
  43. Liu, W., Wang, C., & Mol, A. P. J. (2013). Rural public acceptance of renewable energy deployment: The case of Shandong in China. Applied Energy, 102, 1187–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lock, S. J., Smallman, M., Lee, M., & Rydin, Y. (2014). “Nuclear energy sounded wonderful 40 years ago”: UK citizens views on CCS. Energy Policy, 66, 428–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lukensmeyer, C., & Torres, L. (2006). Public Deliberation: A manager’s guide to citizen engagement, IBM Centre for the Business of Government, http://www.businessofgovernment.org/sites/default/files/LukensmeyerReport.pdf. Accessed 22 July 2017.
  46. Mandela Institute (MI) and Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS) Foundation. (2014). Report of the scoping workshop on climate change, energy law and the environment, November 2014, Johannesburg, South Africa.Google Scholar
  47. Marsh, I. (2002). Governance in Australia: Emerging issues and achievements. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 61(2), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maruyama, Y., Nishikido, M., & Iida, T. (2007). The rise of community wind power in Japan: Enhanced acceptance through social innovation. Energy Policy, 35, 2761–2769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Masullo, I., & Brown, H. (2014). Lessons from South Africa: Mobilizing investment in renewable energy. http://www.wri.org/blog/2014/05/lessons-south-africa-mobilizing-investment-renewable-energy. Accessed on 4 May 2016.
  50. Musall, F. D., & Kuik, O. (2011). Local acceptance of renewable energy: A case study from South East Germany. Energy Policy, 39(6), 3252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. National Planning Commission. (2012). National Development Plan 2030: Our future—Make it work. Pretoria: The Presidency.Google Scholar
  52. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2003). Open Government: Fostering dialogue with civil society, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.Google Scholar
  53. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2015). Education at a Glance: Global Launch. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/OECDEDU/education-at-a-glance-2015-global-launch.
  54. Pegels, A. (2010). Renewable energy in South Africa: Potentials, barriers and options for support. Energy Policy, 38, 4945–4954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Perhac, R. (1998). Comparative risk assessment: Where does the public fit in. Science, technology and human value. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/016224399802300204. Accessed on 12 Aug 2017.
  56. Pidgeon, N. (2012). Climate change risk perception and communication: Addressing a critical moment? Risk Analysis, 32(6), 951–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Reddel, T., & Woolcock, G. (2004). From consultation to participatory governance? A critical review of citizen engagement strategies in Queensland. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 63(3), 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Renn, O. (2008). Risk governance: Coping with uncertainty in a complex world. Earthscan, 2008, 455.Google Scholar
  59. Rennkamp, B. (2017). Handbook in social and political research. [in press] Chapter 3 Out of Sync: Innovation and policy and theory in unequal societies. [in press]. Accessed at https://www.elgaronline.com/view/9781783471904.00009.xml. Accessed on 15 Aug 2017.
  60. Rennkamp, B., & Bhuyan, R. (2016). The social shaping of nuclear energy technology in South Africa. United Nations: United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research Unit.Google Scholar
  61. Renewable Policy Networks 21. (2016). Annual Report 2016—Connecting the DOTS: Convening Multi-Stakeholders on Renewable Energy. C/o UN Environment. Economy Division. (Paris: REN21 Secretariat).Google Scholar
  62. Renewable Policy Networks 21 (REN21). (2016). Renewables 2016 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat). ISBN 978-3-9818107-0-7.Google Scholar
  63. Renewable Policy Networks 21 (REN21). (2017). Renewables 2017 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat). ISBN 978-3-9818107-6-9.Google Scholar
  64. Republic of South Africa. (2000). Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act 05 of 2000. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  65. Republic of South Africa. (1996). Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 108 of 1996. Pretoria: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  66. Republic of South Africa. (2003). Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act 53 of 2003. Pretoria: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  67. Riegler, M., Vogler, C., Neumueller, S., & Komendantova, N. (2017). Engaging inhabitants into energy transition in climate and energy model (CEM) regions: Case studies of Freistadt, Ebreichsdorf and Baden. IIASA Working Paper. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: WP-17-003.Google Scholar
  68. Rosso-Ceron, A., & Kafarov, V. (2015). Barriers to social acceptance of renewable energy systems in Colombia. Current Opinions in Chemical Engineering, 10, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rydin, Y., & Pennington, M. (2000). Public participation and environmental planning: The collective action problem and the potential of social capital. Local Environment, 5(2), 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sauter, R., & Watson, J. (2007). Strategies for the deployment of micro-generation: Implications for social acceptance. Energy Policy, 35(5), 2770–2779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schinko, T., & Komendantova, N. (2016). De-risking investment into concentrated solar power in North Africa: Impacts on the costs of electricity generation. Renewable Energy, 92, 262–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shamsuzzoha, A. H. M., Grant, A., & Clarke, J. (2012). Implementation of renewable energy in Scottish rural area: A social study. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sovacool, B. K. (2014). The importance of open and closed styles of energy research. Social Studies of Science, 40(6), 903–930.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0306312710373842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stamm, A., Dantas, E., Fischer, S., Ganguly, R., & Rennkamp, B. (2009). Discussion paper: Sustainability-oriented innovation systems. German Development Institute. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik gGmbH.Google Scholar
  75. Statistics South Africa. (2015). 2014–2015 Annual Report. Pretioria: Governament Printer.Google Scholar
  76. Strazzera, E., Mura, M., & Contu, D. (2012). Combining choice experiments with psychometric scales to assess the social acceptability of wind energy projects: A latent class approach. Energy Policy, 48, 334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tarigan, A., & Bayer, S. (2012). Temporal change analysis of public attitude, knowledge and acceptance of hydrogen vehicles in Greater Stavanger, 2006–2009. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 16(8), 5535–5544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Turnhout, E., Van Bommel S., & Aarts, N. (2010). How participation creates citizens: Participatory governance as performative practice. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 26. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art26/. Accessed on 12 May 2016.
  79. USAID. (2016). Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Africa. Retrieved from http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pa00msrg.pdf.
  80. Van Os, H. W. A., Herber, R., & Scholtens, B. (2014). Not under our back yards? A case study of social acceptance of the Northern Netherlands CCS initiative. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 923–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Webler, T., & Tuler, S. (2010). Fairness and competence in citizen participation: Theoretical reflections from a case study. Administration & Society, 32(5), 566–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Weiss, T. G. (2010). Governance, good governance and global governance: Conceptual and actual challenges. Third World Quarterly, 21(5), 795–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wolsink, M. (2000). Wind power and the NIMBY-myth: Institutional capacity and the limited significance of public support. Renewable Energy, 21(1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wolsink, M. (2010). Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30(5), 302–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wustenhagen, R., Wolsink, M., & Burer, M. J. (2007). Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation: An introduction to the concept. Energy Policy, 35, 2683–2691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Xavier, R., Komendantova, N., Jarbandhan, D. B., & Nel, D. (2017). Participatory governance in the transformation of the South African energy sector: Critical success factors for environmental leadership. [SA-YSSP]. Journal of Cleaner Production, 154, 621–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yazdanpanah, M., Komendantova, N., & Ardestani, R. S. (2015). Governance of energy transition in Iran: Investigating public acceptance and willingness to use renewable energy sources through socio-psychological model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 45, 566–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vain D. B. Jarbandhan
    • 1
  • Nadejda Komendantova
    • 2
  • Romao Xavier
    • 3
  • Elvis Nkoana
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Public Management and GovernanceUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Risk and Resilience ProgramInternational Institute of Applied Systems AnalysisLaxenburgAustria
  3. 3.University of WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  4. 4.University of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations