Energy Policy, Air Quality, and Climate Mitigation in South Africa: The Case for Integrated Assessment

  • Carmen Klausbruckner
  • Lucas R. F. Henneman
  • Peter Rafaj
  • Harold J. Annegarn
Chapter

Abstract

Background and significance: South Africa reports approximately 20,000 premature deaths due to air pollution annually. Policy in South Africa has typically addressed greenhouse gas emissions, energy supply, and air quality separately. Integrated assessment provides a framework in which policies related to these topics can be evaluated simultaneously. Methodology: The present study provides an overview of legal and policy documents and reviews available literature concerning existing energy, climate, and air quality policies in South Africa to highlight inconsistencies of different policy approaches and identify possible co-benefits. Previous applications of integrated assessment in South Africa are discussed as approaches to provide evidence-based decision support. Application/relevance to systems analysis: The analysis and results demonstrate that a complete analysis of the energy and industry sectors can identify inefficiencies and opportunities. The system was analysed through both a policy lens and a technical application of an integrated assessment model. Policy and/or practice implications: Multiple potential policy options have been identified for South Africa to meet future energy demand and reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Combining GHG mitigation policies with subsidies to encourage the use of electricity or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking is most promising to avoid trade-offs. Discussion and conclusion: The goal of this work is to provide an argument for assessing energy, air quality, and climate change policies in an integrated assessment framework. Examples of current policy inconsistencies have been presented and published work detailing policy options to attain defined climate-related goals discussed. Integrated assessment can help to identify co-benefits and is a useful tool to improve decisions in complex policy environments. It is therefore recommended that integrated assessment tools be used to gain useful information for decision-making concerning climate change and air quality policies.

Keywords

Energy policy Air quality Integrated assessment Greenhouse gas Climate change mitigation  

References

  1. Amann, M., Bertok, I., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Cofala, J., Heyes, C., Höglund-Isaksson, L., et al. (2011). Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse gases in Europe: Modeling and policy applications. Environmental Modelling & Software, 26(12), 1489–1501.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.07.012.
  2. Amann, M., Kejun, J., Jiming, H., Wang, S., Wei, W., Jia, X., et al. (2008). Scenarios for cost-effective control of air pollution and greenhouse gasses in China. Retrieved from http://gains.iiasa.ac.at/gains/download/GAINS-Asia-China-v8_MA.pdf.
  3. Baker, L., Newell, P., & Phillips, J. (2014). The Political Economy of energy transitions: The case of South Africa. New Political Economy, 19(6), 791–818. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13563467.2013.849674.
  4. Balakrishnan, K., Ghosh, S., Ganguli, B., Sambandam, S., Bruce, N., Barnes, D. F., et al. (2013). State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 12(1), 77.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-12-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes, B., Mathee, A., & Thomas, E. (2009). Household energy, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in South Africa. Journal of Energy in South Africa, 20(1).Google Scholar
  6. Bollen, J., Hers, S., & van der Zwaan, B. (2010). An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Energy Policy, 38(8), 4021–4030.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.03.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braspenning Radu, O., van den Berg, M., Klimont, Z., Deetman, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Muntean, M., et al. (2016). Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios. Atmospheric Environment, 140, 577–591.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.021.
  8. Bruce, N., Perez-Padilla, R., & Albalak, R. (2000). Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge for the new millennium. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 1078–1092. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2560841/pdf/11019457.pdf.
  9. Burnett, R. T., Arden Pope, C., Ezzati, M., Olives, C., Lim, S. S., Mehta, S., et al. (2014). An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(4), 397–403.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049.
  10. Chafe, Z. A., Brauer, M., Klimont, Z., Van Dingenen, R., Mehta, S., Rao, S., et al. (2015). Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to ambient PM2.5 air pollution and the burden of disease. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12), 1314–1320.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206340.
  11. Cohen, M., & Vecchiatto, P. (2016, November). South Africa slows nuclear plans as rating assessments loom. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://mg.co.za/article/2016-11-22-sa-delays-nuclear-plant-plan-as-economy-stagnates).
  12. Cohen, B., & Winkler, H. (2014). Greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas and coal for electricity generation in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 110(3/4). Retrieved from https://www.sajs.co.za/article/view/3731.
  13. DEA. (2011). Defining South Africa’s desired greenhouse gas mitigation outcomes—research, concerns, issues and proposals. Pretoria, SA. Retrieved from http://pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/docs/110329defining-edit.pdf.
  14. DEA. (2014). South Africa’s Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Mitigation Potential Analysis. South Africa: Pretoria.Google Scholar
  15. Department of Environmental Affairs. (2015). Media Statement for Minister’s announcement of decisions for applications for postponement of compliance time-frames for minimum Air Quality Emission Standard. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/mediarelease/molewa_airqualityemissionstandards.
  16. Department of Environmental Affairs. (2016). Draft strategy to address air pollution in dense low-income settlements. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/gazetted_notices/airpollution_strategy_g40088_gen356.pdf.
  17. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. (2004). South African national climate change response strategy. Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/climate_change_governance.pdf.
  18. Dockery, D. W., Pope, C. A., Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E., et al. (1993). An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. The New England Journal of Medicine, 329(24), 1753–1759.Google Scholar
  19. Edkins, M., Marquard, A., & Winkler, H. (2010a). Assessing the effectiveness of national solar and wind energy policies in South Africa, (June). Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/item/19472/Edkins_Assessing_effectiveness_2010.pdf?sequence=1.
  20. Edkins, M., Marquard, A., & Winkler, H. (2010b). South Africa’s renewable energy policy roadmaps. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/item/19473/Edkins_South_Africa_039_s_renewable_2010.pdf?sequence=1.
  21. Energy Research Centre. (2015). Technical background information to support the development of the mitigation component of South Africa’s intended nationally determined contribution, including supported required for mitigation. Cape Town, South Africa. Retrieved from http://www.erc.uct.ac.za/sites/default/files/image_tool/images/119/Papers-2015/15-ERC-Technical_background_INDC_0.pdf.
  22. Esterhuyse, S., Redelinghuys, N., & Kemp, M. (2016). Unconventional oil and gas extraction in South Africa: Water linkages within the population—environment—development nexus and its policy implications Unconventional oil and gas extraction in South Africa: Water. Water International, 41(3), 409–425.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2016.1129725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. European Commission. (2011). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research. https://doi.org/10.2904/EDGARv4.2.
  24. Gao, T., Wang, X. C., Chen, R., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W. (2015). Disability adjusted life year (DALY): A useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 511, 268–287.Google Scholar
  25. Garcia-Menendez, F., Saari, R. K., Monier, E., & Selin, N. E. (2015). U.S. Air Quality and Health Benefits from Avoided Climate Change under Greenhouse Gas Mitigation. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(13), 7580–7588.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Groundup. (2016, November). South Africa: Understanding the Court Challenge to the Nuclear Deal. AllAfrica.com. Retrieved from http://allafrica.com/stories/201611250810.html.
  27. Henneman, L. R. F., Liu, C., Mulholland, J. A., & Russell, A. G. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality regulations: A review of accountability studies and frameworks. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 67(2), 144–172.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2016.1242518.
  28. Henneman, L. R. F., Rafaj, P., Annegarn, H. J., & Klausbruckner, C. (2015). Assesing emission levels and costs associated with climate and air pollution policies in South Africa. Energy Policy, 89, 160–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.11.026.
  29. IIASA. (2012). GAINS Global. Laxenburg, Austria. Retrieved from http://gains.iiasa.ac.at/models/index.html.
  30. International Energy Agency. (2012). Energy Technology Perspectives 2012.Google Scholar
  31. International Energy Agency. (2016). Energy and Air Pollution. World Energy Outlook—Special Report, 266. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WorldEnergyOutlookSpecialReport2016EnergyandAirPollution.pdf.
  32. Kiesewetter, G., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Schöpp, W., Heyes, C., Thunis, P., Bessagnet, B., et al. (2015). Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: Source apportionment and possible futures. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(3), 1539–1553.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-1539-2015.
  33. Kimemia, D., Vermaak, C., Pachauri, S., & Rhodes, B. (2014). Burns, scalds and poisonings from household energy use in South Africa: Are the energy poor at greater risk? Energy for Sustainable Development, 18, 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2013.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kings, S. (2016, September). Air pollution kills 20 000 per year in South Africa—as many as in traffic. Mail & Guardian. Retrieved from http://mg.co.za/article/2016-09-12-00-air-pollution-kills-20-000-per-year-in-south-africa-as-many-as-in-traffic.
  35. Klausbruckner, C., Annegarn, H. J., Henneman, L. R. F., & Rafaj, P. (2016). A policy review of synergies and trade-offs in South African climate change mitigation and air pollution control strategies. Environmental Science & Policy, 57, 70–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kreft, S., Eckstein, D., & Melchior, I. (2016). Global Climate Risk Index 2017. Bonn. Retrieved from https://germanwatch.org/de/download/16411.pdf.
  37. Laden, F., Schwartz, J., Speizer, F. E., & Dockery, D. W. (2006). Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: Extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173(6), 667–672.  https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200503-443OC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Language, B., Piketh, S. J., Wernecke, B., & Burger, R. (2016). Household air pollution in South African low-income settlements: a case study. In WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, (pp. 227–236). WIT Press.  https://doi.org/10.2495/AIR160211.
  39. Larson, B. (2015). Benefits and Costs of the Air Pollution Targets for the Post-2015 Development Agenda. In Post-2015 Consensus (p. Conference Procedings). Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  40. Le Roux, L. J., Zunckel, M., & McCormick, S. (2009). Reduction in air pollution using the “basa njengo magogo” method and the applicability to low-smoke fuels. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 20(3), 3–10.Google Scholar
  41. Lim, S. S., Vos, T., Flaxman, A. D., Danaei, G., Shibuya, K., Adair-Rohani, H., et al. (2013). A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380(9859), 2224–2260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8.
  42. Lin, S., Jones, R., Pantea, C., Özkaynak, H., Rao, S. T. T., Hwang, S.-A., et al. (2013). Impact of NOx emissions reduction policy on hospitalizations for respiratory disease in New York State. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 23(1), 73–80.  https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.69.
  43. Matinga, M. N., Clancy, J. S., & Annegarn, H. J. (2014). Explaining the non-implementation of health-improving policies related to solid fuels use in South Africa. Energy Policy, 68, 53–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCollum, D., Krey, V., Riahi, K., Kolp, P., Grubler, A., Makowski, M., et al. (2013). Climate policies can help resolve energy security and air pollution challenges. Climatic Change, 119(2), 479–494.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0710-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Messner, S., & Strubegger, M. (1995). User’s Guide for MESSAGE III (IIASA Working Paper No. WP-95-069). Laxenburg, Austria.Google Scholar
  46. National Department of Health. (2014). National climate change & health adaptation plan 2014–2019. Pretoria, SA. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.za/index.php/shortcodes/2015-03-29-10-42-47/2015-04-30-08-29-27/2015-04-30-08-32-49?download=1776:national-climate-change-and-health-adaptation-plan-a4.
  47. Obradovich, N., & Zimmerman, B. (2016). African voters indicate lack of support for climate change policies. Environmental Science & Policy, 66, 292–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.06.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. OECD. (2012). OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction. Paris. Retrieved from http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/oecd-environmental-outlook-to-2050_9789264122246-en#page297.
  49. Parker, J. D., Mendola, P., & Woodruff, T. J. (2008). Preterm birth after the Utah Valley Steel Mill closure: A natural experiment. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 19(6), 820–823.  https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181883d5d.
  50. Peel, J. L., Klein, M., Flanders, W. D., Mulholland, J. A., & Tolbert, P. E. (2010). Impact of Improved Air Quality During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Multiple Cardiovascular and Respiratory Outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20575278.
  51. Peel, J. L., Metzger, K. B., Klein, M., Flanders, W. D., Mulholland, J. A., & Tolbert, P. E. (2007). Ambient air pollution and cardiovascular emergency department visits in potentially sensitive groups. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(6), 625–633.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwk051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pope, C. (1989). Respiratory disease associated with community air pollution and a steel mill, Utah Valley. American Journal of Public Health, 79(5), 623–8. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1349506&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
  53. Pope, C. A., Schwartz, J., & Ransom, M. R. (1992). Daily mortality and PM10 pollution in Utah Valley. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 47(3), 211–217.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1992.9938351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pretorius, I., Piketh, S., Burger, R., & Neomagus, H. (2015). A perspective on South African coal fired power station emissions. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 26(3), 27–40. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1021-447X2015000300004&nrm=iso.
  55. Purohit, P., Munir, T., & Rafaj, P. (2013). Scenario analysis of strategies to control air pollution in Pakistan. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 10(2), 77–91.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1943815X.2013.782877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Andersen, Z. J., Beelen, R., Samoli, E., Stafoggia, M., Weinmayr, G., et al. (2013). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: Prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The Lancet Oncology, 14(9), 813–822.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1.
  57. Rafaj, P., Schöpp, W., Russ, P., Heyes, C., & Amann, M. (2013). Co-benefits of post-2012 global climate mitigation policies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 18(6), 801–824.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-012-9390-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rao, S., Pachauri, S., Dentener, F., Kinney, P., Klimont, Z., Riahi, K., et al. (2013). Better air for better health: Forging synergies in policies for energy access, climate change and air pollution. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), 1122–1130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Republic of South Africa. (1996). National Road Traffic Act. Retrieved from https://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/a93-96.pdf
  60. Republic of South Africa. (2004). National Health Act, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/a61-03.pdf.
  61. Republic of South Africa. (2008). National Energy Act. Retrieved from http://www.energy.gov.za/files/policies/NationalEnergyAct_34of2008.pdf.
  62. Republic of South Africa. (2014). Medium Term Strategic Framework 2014–2019.Google Scholar
  63. Rich, D. Q., Liu, K., Zhang, J., Thurston, S. W., Stevens, T. P., Pan, Y., et al. (2015). Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympic air pollution reduction: Results from a natural experiment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(11), 1713–1717.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408795.
  64. Scenario Building Team. (2007). Lont term mitigation scenarios strategic options for South Africa. Long Term Mitigation Scenarios: Scenario Document, Department of Environment and Tourism.Google Scholar
  65. Schwartz, J. & Marcus, A. (1990). Mortality and air pollution in London: a time series analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 131(1), 185–194. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2403468.
  66. Scorgie, Y., Kneen, M., Annegarn, H. J., & Burger, L. (2003). Air pollution in the Vaal Triangle—quantifying source contributions and identifying cost-effective solutions. Clean Air Journal, 13(2), 5–18.Google Scholar
  67. Shirinde, J., Wichmann, J., & Voyi, K. (2014). Association between wheeze and selected air pollution sources in an air pollution priority area in South Africa: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 13(1), 32.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-13-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Simpson, D., Benedictow, A., Berge, H., Bergstrom, R., Emberson, L. D., Fagerli, H., et al. (2012). The EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model—technical description. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(16), 7825–7865.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-7825-2012.
  69. Smith, K. R. (2002). Indoor air pollution in developing countries: recommendations for research. Indoor Air, 12(3), 198–207.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0668.2002.01137.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. South Africa National Planning Commission. (2011). Our future—make it work; National Development Plan 2030. http://www.dac.gov.za/sites/default/files/NDP%202030%20-%20Our%20future%20-%20make%20it%20work_0.pdf.
  71. South African Government. (2011). National Climate Change Response White Paper. Pretoria, SA. Retrieved from http://www.climateresponse.co.za/.
  72. South African Government. (2016). South Africa’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC). Retrieved from https://www.environment.gov.za/sites/default/files/docs/sanational_determinedcontribution.pdf.
  73. Thambiran, T., & Diab, R. (2010). A review of scientific linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality with implications for air quality management in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 106.Google Scholar
  74. The World Bank and IHME. (2016). The Cost of Air Pollution—Strengthening the Economic Case for Action. Washington DC. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/781521473177013155/pdf/108141-REVISED-Cost-of-PollutionWebCORRECTEDfile.pdf.
  75. UNFCCC. (2011). Compilation of information on nationally appropriate mitigation actions to be implemented by Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2011/awglca14/eng/inf01.pdf.
  76. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2013). South Africa. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=SF#cde.
  77. Vegter, I. (2016). Air Quality: Missing the wood for the trees. Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrieved from http://irr.org.za/reports-and-publications/occasional-reports/files/irr-air-quality.pdf.
  78. Wagner, F., Heyes, C., Klimont, Z., & Schöpp, W. (2013). The GAINS optimization module: Identifying cost-effective measures for improving air quality and short-term climate forcing.Google Scholar
  79. Wagner, F., Schöpp, W., & Amann, M. (2013b). Dealing with fixed emissions ceilings in an uncertain future: Offsetting under environmental integrity. Journal of Environmental Management, 129, 25–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.05.054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Walwyn, D. R., & Brent, A. C. (2015). Renewable energy gathers steam in South Africa. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41(0), 390–401.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.049.
  81. WHO. (2015). Global health observatory data repository. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.1701?lang=en.
  82. Wichmann, J., & Voyi, K. V. V. (2006). Impact of cooking and heating fuel use on acute respiratory health of preschool children in South Africa. The Southern African Journal of Epidemiology and Infection, 21(2), 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Winiwarter, W. (2005). The GAINS Model for Greenhouse Gases—Nitrous Oxide.Google Scholar
  84. Winkler, H., Altieri, K., Clarke, S., Garland, R. M., Kornelius, G., & Meas, M. H. (2016). Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. In P. Scholes Lochner Schreiner, G., Snyman-Van der Walt, L. and de Jager, M., R (Ed.), Shale Gas Development in the Central Karoo: A Scientific Assessment of the Opportunities and Risks. Pretoria, SA. Retrieved from http://seasgd.csir.co.za/scientific-assessment-chapters/.
  85. Witi, J., Stevens, L., Manzini, L., & Musee, N. (2013). GHG Inventory for South Africa.Google Scholar
  86. Worthington, R. (2008). Cheap at half the cost: Coal and electricity in South Africa. In D. A. McDonald (Ed.), Electric Capitalism (pp. 109–148). HSRC Press.Google Scholar
  87. Zhang, S., Worrell, E., Crijns-Graus, W., Krol, M., de Bruine, M., Geng, G., et al. (2016). Modeling energy efficiency to improve air quality and health effects of China’s cement industry. Applied Energy, 184, 574–593.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.10.030.
  88. Ziervogel, G., New, M., Archer van Garderen, E., Midgley, G., Taylor, A., Hamann, R., et al. (2014). Climate change impacts and adaptation in South Africa. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 5(5), 605–620.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.295.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Klausbruckner
    • 1
  • Lucas R. F. Henneman
    • 2
  • Peter Rafaj
    • 3
  • Harold J. Annegarn
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsHarvard University T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Air Quality and Greenhouse Gases ProgramInternational Institute for Applied Systems AnalysisLaxenburgAustria
  4. 4.Department of Geography and Environmental SciencesNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations