In most cases, data exploration and the computation of association matrices are preliminary steps towards deeper analyses. In this chapter you will go further by experimenting one of the large groups of analytical methods used in ecology: clustering. Practically, you will learn how to choose among various clustering methods and compute them, apply these techniques to the Doubs River data to identify groups of sites and fish species. You will also explore two methods of constrained clustering, a powerful modelling approach where the clustering process is constrained by an external data set.
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