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United Nations Police Missions and Human Rights

Abstract

This contribution deals with selected issues on UN police and international human rights law. It focuses on the police component of peace operations led by the United Nations. Starting with the question ‘What is UN police’ or, more precisely, ‘How is the term legally defined?’ the article highlights the legal framework for police in UN peace operations. Different levels of human rights involvement in peacekeeping are scrutinized: the law of the host State, the law of the police-contributing States, and the United Nations as such. Specific issues such as the extraterritorial application of human rights treaties (especially the ICCPR and the ECHR), the applicability of human rights to the United Nations, violations of human rights by members of the police component, aspects of accountability, immunity, and disciplinary measures are addressed. Furthermore, the paper discusses selected fields of human rights issues in the practice of the police, namely the protection of civilians, the use of force, as well as arrest and detention.

Judith Thorn is a Research Assistant at the Chair for Public Law and International Law at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Kyi (2010), Freedom from fear, p. 184.

  2. 2.

    Art. 1 No. 1 Charter of the United Nations, San Francisco, 26 June 1945, 1 UNTS XVI.

  3. 3.

    Preamble Charter of the United Nations, San Francisco, 26 June 1945, 1 UNTS XVI.

  4. 4.

    For an comprehensive overview see Bellamy, Williams (2010), pp. 71 et seqq.

  5. 5.

    Kondoch (2011), p. 75.

  6. 6.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2008) United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Principles and Guidelines, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/capstone_eng.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016, p. 14: ‘integral part of the normative framework for United Nations peacekeeping operations’.

  7. 7.

    Term by Day and Freeman (2005).

  8. 8.

    Schmidl (1998a), Police functions in peace operations, pp. 30 et seq.; Schmidl (1998b), Informationen zur Sicherheitspolitik, pp. 20 et seqq.

  9. 9.

    UN (2016) UN Peacekeeping Fact Sheet. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/bnote0416.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  10. 10.

    Furthermore the concept of conflict prevention is mentioned: Bellamy, Williams (2010), pp. 14 et seqq., 173 et seqq.; UN DPKO/DFS (2008) United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Principles and Guidelines, pp. 17 et seqq. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/capstone_eng.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  11. 11.

    For an overview see: Sloan (2011), p. 20; Larsen (2012), pp. 7 et seqq. with further references; some authors even distinguish between six generations: e.g. Thakur and Schnabel (2001), pp. 9 et seqq.

  12. 12.

    For an overview see Larsen (2012), p. 8 with further references.

  13. 13.

    For an overview see Larsen (2012), pp. 8 et seq. with further references.

  14. 14.

    Durch (2014), p. V; Durch (2015).

  15. 15.

    Durch (2014), p. 1.

  16. 16.

    For a comprehensive list of possible tasks for UN Police please consult: UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, Annex 1, pp. 2 et seqq. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016. See also Durch (2014), pp. 6 et seqq.; Durch (2015).

  17. 17.

    Grenfell (2011), p. 93.

  18. 18.

    UN (2014) Security Council Resolution 2185 (2014), UN Doc. S/RES/2185 (2014).

  19. 19.

    For an overview see: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/initiatives/framework.shtml. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  20. 20.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, Annex 1, pp. 2 et seqq. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  21. 21.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2015) Guidelines on Police Capacity-Building and Development, Ref. 2015.08. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  22. 22.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Command in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.14. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Command.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  23. 23.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2016.

  24. 24.

    See e.g. Sebastián (2015), p. 14. For the SPTs please see: UN, Specalized Police Teams, https://police.un.org/en/specialized-police-teams. Last Accessed: 29 November 2017.

  25. 25.

    E.g. Kondoch (2011), pp. 89 et seq.

  26. 26.

    UN (2014) Security Council Resolution 2185 (2014), UN Doc. S/RES/2185 (2014).

  27. 27.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.

  28. 28.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 14 July 2016.

  29. 29.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016; UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.

  30. 30.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016; UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.

  31. 31.

    Melzer and Gaggioli Gasteyger (2016), p. 63.

  32. 32.

    See Melzer and Gaggioli Gasteyger (2016), pp. 63 et seq.

  33. 33.

    UN, Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, UN General Assembly resolution. 34/169, annex. UN Doc A/34/46 (1979).

  34. 34.

    Art. 1, Commentary, UN, Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, UN General Assembly resolution. 34/169, annex. UN Doc A/34/46 (1979).

  35. 35.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016; UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.

  36. 36.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.; DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, section E, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.

  37. 37.

    Hansen (2011), p. 2.

  38. 38.

    White (2014), p. 233 with reference to the UN Manual on Policies and Procedures Concerning the Reimbursement and Control of Contingent-Owned Equipment of Troop/Police Contributors Participating in Peacekeeping Missions (COE Manual), 27 October 2011, UN Doc A/C.5/66/8, Chapter 8.

  39. 39.

    Of the same opinion are Melzer and Gaggioli Gasteyger (2016), p. 64.

  40. 40.

    Melzer and Gaggioli Gasteyger (2016), p. 64.

  41. 41.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, para 20: ‘United Nations police components consist of Individual Police Officers (IPOs), both contracted and seconded, and Formed Police Units (FPUs).’ http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 17 July 2016.

  42. 42.

    Sheeran (2011), p. 3.

  43. 43.

    Sheeran (2011), p. 5.

  44. 44.

    UN, Statute of the International Court of Justice, 26 June 1945, San Francisco, entered into force 24 October 1945, UNCIO 15, 355.

  45. 45.

    Oswald et al. (2011), pp. 11 et seq.

  46. 46.

    Oswald et al. (2011), pp. 11 et seq.; see also Sands and Klein (2009), Chapter 14.

  47. 47.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2008) United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Principles and Guidelines, p. 14. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/capstone_eng.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  48. 48.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 13 July 2016.

  49. 49.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 14 July 2016.

  50. 50.

    Durch (2014), p. 20.

  51. 51.

    See also Kondoch (2011), p. 78: ‘Although the Charter (…) lacks precise definitions to scope and content, it is clear that UN Police should strictly observe human rights as the promotion of human rights is one of the purposes and principles of the UN’.

  52. 52.

    Bothe (2002), p. 265.

  53. 53.

    Bothe (2002), p. 265.

  54. 54.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 5; Kondoch (2011), p. 79.

  55. 55.

    For an overview see Oswald et al. (2011), pp. 275 et seqq.

  56. 56.

    Månsson (2008a), Integration of Human Rights in Peace Operations, p. 96. She also states that the SC ‘avoids referring to international human rights law per se.’

  57. 57.

    This is also acknowledged by Månsson (2008a), Integration of Human Rights in Peace Operations, p. 96.

  58. 58.

    Kondoch (2011), p. 79.

  59. 59.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 69.

  60. 60.

    See e.g. UN, Security Council, Resolution 1542 (2004), 30 April 2004, UN Doc S/RES/1542 (2004), p. 3: ‘promote and protect human rights’. UN, Security Council, Resolution 1590 (2005), 24 March 2005, UN Doc S/RES/1590 (2005), p. 4: ‘protect and promote human rights in Sudan’. See also Oswald et al. (2011), p. 69 and Kondoch (2011), p. 79 Fn 22 with further examples.

  61. 61.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2008) United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Principles and Guidelines, pp. 17 et seqq. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/capstone_eng.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2016.

  62. 62.

    UN, Model Status-of-Forces Agreement for Peace-Keeping Operations, 9 October 1990, UN Doc A/45/594.

  63. 63.

    UN, Model Memorandum of Understanding (revised), 27 October 2011, Official Records of the General Assembly, Sixty-first Session, Supplement No. 19 (UN Doc A/61/19/Rev.1); the revised text can be found in Chap. 9 of the UN Manual on Policies and Procedures Concerning the Reimbursement and Control of Contingent-Owned Equipment of Troop/Police Contributors Participating in Peacekeeping Missions (COE Manual)’, UN Doc A/C.5/66/8.

  64. 64.

    UN, Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, UN General Assembly resolution. 34/169, annex. UN Doc A/34/46 (1979), Art. 2, Commentary, lit a.

  65. 65.

    UN General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III).

  66. 66.

    See an overview at: Kondoch (2011), p. 82.

  67. 67.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 14 July 2016.

  68. 68.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, para 11. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2016.

  69. 69.

    Labuda (2015), para 50.

  70. 70.

    Labuda (2015), para 50.

  71. 71.

    Labuda (2015), para 50.

  72. 72.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 101.

  73. 73.

    UN, Model Status-of-Forces Agreement for Peace-Keeping Operations, 9 October 1990, UN Doc A/45/594.

  74. 74.

    Fleck (2008), pp. 372 et seq.

  75. 75.

    Among others: Hansen (2002), p. 81.

  76. 76.

    O’Connor (2008), p. 67.

  77. 77.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, para 13.

    http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2016.

  78. 78.

    Kondoch (2011), p. 79.

  79. 79.

    See further details: Kondoch (2011), p. 79.

  80. 80.

    International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, New York, entered into force 23 March 1976, 999 UNTS 171 and 1057 UNTS 407.

  81. 81.

    International Covenant on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, New York, entered into force 3 January 1976, 993 UNTS 3.

  82. 82.

    Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 10 December 1984, New York, entered into force 26 Jun 1987, 1465 UNTS 85.

  83. 83.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 102. Please find a list of the core human rights instruments at: www.ohchr.org/EN/professionalInterest/Pages/CoreInstruments.aspx. Accessed 9 June 2016.

  84. 84.

    Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 November 1950, Rome entered into force 3 September 1953, 213 UNTS 222.

  85. 85.

    African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (‘Banjul Charter’), 27 June 1981, Nairobi, entered into force 21 October 1986, 1520 UNTS 218.

  86. 86.

    American Convention on Human Rights, 21 Nov 1969, San José, entered into force 18 July 1978, 1144 UNTS 123.

  87. 87.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 102.

  88. 88.

    See also Milanović (2011), pp. 10 et seq.

  89. 89.

    Wenzel (2008), para 3; Quénivet (2011), p. 103.; see also Milanović (2011), pp. 11 et seq. for more examples concerning the treaties with an jurisdictional approach and treaties which do not include a jurisdictional clause (e.g. treaties with provisions on territorial application and treaties without provisions on jurisdiction or the territorial application).

  90. 90.

    Dannenbaum (2010), p. 130.

  91. 91.

    ECHR, Loizidou v. Turkey, 18 December 1996, Application no. 15318/89, ECHR 1996-VI.

  92. 92.

    ECHR, Ilaşcu a.o. v. Moldova and Russia, 08 July 2004, Application no. 48787/99, ECHR 2004-VII.

  93. 93.

    ECHR, Banković a.o. v. Belgium a.o., 12 December 2001, Application no. 52207/99, ECHR 2001-XII.

  94. 94.

    ECHR, Issa a.o. v. Turkey, 16 November 2004, Application no. 31821/96, ECHR 2004, 629.

  95. 95.

    ECHR, Behrami and Behrami v. France and Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway, 2 May 2007, Application no. 71412/01, Application no. 78166/01.

  96. 96.

    For the extraterritorial application of other treaties (e.g. the ICESCR and CAT) please refer to Milanović (2011), pp. 11 et seq.

  97. 97.

    Some States (e.g. USA and Israel) and commentators still invoke the narrow wording and the trevaux préparatoires. For the discussion and the history see Tomuschat (2014), pp. 100 et seqq. and Quénivet (2011), pp. 104 et seqq.

  98. 98.

    See also Nowak (2005), ART. 2 CCPR para 27.

  99. 99.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 104; Opie (2006), pp. 11 et seq.

  100. 100.

    For the drafting history see Nowak (2005), ART. 2 CCPR para 27; See also Quénivet (2011), p. 104; Opie (2006), pp. 11 et seq. both with further references.

  101. 101.

    Opie (2006), p. 11 with further references.

  102. 102.

    Art. 5 (1) ICCPR: ‘Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in the present Covenant.’

  103. 103.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 104; Opie (2006), p. 11.

  104. 104.

    Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI), 16 December 1966, New York, entered into force 23 March 1976, 999 UNTS 171.

  105. 105.

    Art. 1 Optional Protocol (Fn 105): ‘A State Party to the Covenant that becomes a Party to the present Protocol recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from individuals subject to its jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation by that State Party of any of the rights set forth in the Covenant. (…).’

  106. 106.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 104; Opie (2006), pp. 11 et seq. See also: Nowak (2005), Art. 2 CCPR para 28 with further arguments.

  107. 107.

    HRC, Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay Case, 29 July 1981, Communication No. 52/1979, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OP/I.

  108. 108.

    HRC, Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay Case, 29 July 1981, Communication No. 52/1979, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OP/I, para 12.3.

  109. 109.

    Tomuschat C, Individual Opinion, HRC, Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay Case, 29 July 1981, Communication No. 52/1979, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OP/I.

  110. 110.

    HRC, Lilian Celeberti de Casariego v. Uguguay, 29 July 1981, Communication No. 56/1979, UN Doc. CCPR/C/OP/1, para 92.

  111. 111.

    HRC, Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee, Israel, 18 August 1998, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.93, para 10.

  112. 112.

    For further cases and details see Quénivet (2011), p. 106 and Opie (2006), pp. 12 et seq.

  113. 113.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 107.

  114. 114.

    They still invoke the narrow wording and the travaux préparatoires. For the discussion and the history see Tomuschat (2014), pp. 100 et seqq. and Quénivet (2011), pp. 104 et seqq. with further references on statements by Israel and the USA. For the USA see also: Walsh (2009), pp. 50 et seqq.

  115. 115.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 107.

  116. 116.

    Important is the State’s ability to exercise control over the individual. Opie (2006), p. 30 gives a good example for this case group: ‘When UNMIK Police arrest and detain individuals, they assert effective control over those persons, bringing them temporary within their State’s jurisdiction.’

  117. 117.

    ECHR, Loizidou v. Turkey, 18 December 1996, Application no. 15318/89 (1996), 23 ECHR 513, para 52.

  118. 118.

    The term ‘effective (overall) control’ is disputed, however a deeper analysis is beyond the scope of this discourse: see among others Dannenbaum (2010), pp. 131 et seq.; Wenzel (2008), paras 16 et seqq.

  119. 119.

    ECHR, Banković et al. v. Belgium et al., 12 December 2001, Application no. 52207/99 (Admissability), para 73.

  120. 120.

    ECHR, Banković et al. v. Belgium et al., 12 December 2001, Application no. 52207/99 (Admissability).

  121. 121.

    ECHR, Banković et al. v. Belgium et al., 12 December 2001, Application no. 52207/99 (Admissability), paras 74 et seqq., 82, 85.

  122. 122.

    Among others Wenzel (2008), paras 10 et seqq. with further references; see also Happold (2003) and Roxstrom et al. (2005).

  123. 123.

    ECHR, Al Skeini and others v. United Kingdom, 7 July 2011, Application no. 55721/07.

  124. 124.

    For further details and critique on the Al-Skeini Judgment see among others: Ryngaert (2012), Milanović (2012), pp. 132 et seq.; Miltner (2012).

  125. 125.

    ECHR, Al Skeini and others v. United Kingdom, 7 July 2011, Application no. 55721/07, para 142.

  126. 126.

    Ryngaert (2012), p. 58; see also Milanović (2012), p. 127.

  127. 127.

    ECHR, Al Skeini and others v. United Kingdom, 7 July 2011, Application no. 55721/07, para 131.

  128. 128.

    ECHR, Al Skeini and others v. United Kingdom, 7 July 2011, Application no. 55721/07, paras 130 et seqq.

  129. 129.

    ECHR, Behrami and Behrami v. France, 2 May 2007, Application no. 71412/01.

  130. 130.

    ECHR, Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway, 2 May 2007, Application no. 78166/01.

  131. 131.

    See also Larsen (2008), p. 510.

  132. 132.

    UN (1999) Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999), UN Doc. S/Res/1244 (1999).

  133. 133.

    ECHR, Behrami and Behrami v. France and Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway, 2 May 2007, Application no. 71412/01, Application no. 78166/01, para 72.

  134. 134.

    ECHR, Behrami and Behrami v. France and Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway, 2 May 2007, Application no. 71412/01, Application no. 78166/01, paras 71 et seq., 144 et seqq.

  135. 135.

    ECHR, Behrami and Behrami v. France and Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway, 2 May 2007, Application no. 71412/01, Application no. 78166/01, para 151.

  136. 136.

    ECHR, Behrami and Behrami v. France and Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway, 2 May 2007, Application no. 71412/01, Application no. 78166/01, para 152.

  137. 137.

    See e.g. Sari (2008), pp. 158 et seqq.; Milanović and Papić (2009), pp. 271 et seqq.; Krieger (2009), Burke (2012), pp. 20 et seqq. with further reference on critique in Fn 136.

  138. 138.

    See also Quénivet (2011), p. 116.

  139. 139.

    ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 9 July 2004, ICJ Reports 2004, 139.

  140. 140.

    ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 9 July 2004, ICJ Reports 2004, 139, para 111, see also paras 109 et seqq.; ICJ, Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, 19 December 2005, ICJ Reports 2005, 168, para 216.

  141. 141.

    ICJ, Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, 19 December 2005, ICJ Reports 2005, 168.

  142. 142.

    ICJ, Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, 19 December 2005, ICJ Reports 2005, 168, para 216 with reference to ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 9 July 2004, ICJ Reports 2004, 139, paras 178–182, 107–113.

  143. 143.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 117.

  144. 144.

    Howland (2008), p. 6.

  145. 145.

    In detail see Sands and Klein (2009), paras 15-004 et seqq.

  146. 146.

    ICJ, Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion), 11 April 1949, ICJ Rep 1949, 174, 178.

  147. 147.

    ICJ, Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion), 11 April 1949, ICJ Rep 1949, 174, 178.

  148. 148.

    ICJ, Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion), 11 April 1949, ICJ Rep 1949, 174.

  149. 149.

    ICJ, Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion), 11 April 1949, ICJ Rep 1949, 174, 179.

  150. 150.

    Among others Mégret and Hoffmann (2003), pp. 316 et seq.

  151. 151.

    Labuda (2015), para 54; see also Mégret and Hoffmann (2003), p. 316.

  152. 152.

    Labuda (2015), para 54.

  153. 153.

    Labuda (2015), para 54. Also Dannenbaum (2010), p. 135.

  154. 154.

    Dupuy (1997), p. 3; Murphy (2008), p. 81; Dannenbaum (2010), pp. 136 et seq.

  155. 155.

    Cassin R as cited in Rehman (2003), p. 58.

  156. 156.

    Mégret and Hoffmann (2003), p. 317.

  157. 157.

    Stavrinides (1999), p. 40.

  158. 158.

    Dannenbaum (2010), p. 137.

  159. 159.

    Reinisch (2001), p. 143.

  160. 160.

    Reinisch (2001), p. 143.

  161. 161.

    Reinisch (2001), pp. 137–138 and 141–143; see also Mégret and Hoffmann (2003), p. 318.

  162. 162.

    Reinisch (2001), p. 137.

  163. 163.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 121 with further references.

  164. 164.

    Sands and Klein (2009), paras 15-004 et seqq.

  165. 165.

    Labuda (2015), para 50; Reinisch (2001), p. 136 with further references.

  166. 166.

    Quénivet (2011), p. 122.

  167. 167.

    Reinisch (2001), p. 133. See also Quénivet (2011), p. 122.

  168. 168.

    Also Quénivet (2011), p. 123.

  169. 169.

    Kondoch (2011), pp. 83 et seq.

  170. 170.

    Reinisch (2001), p. 131.

  171. 171.

    See e.g. UN, ‘Small Number’ of Officials, Experts on Mission Who Commit Crimes, Damage Organization’s Reputation Must Be Held to Account, Sixth Committee Hears, 16 October 2015, GA/L/3500, http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/gal3500.doc.htm. Accessed 29 July 2016.

  172. 172.

    O’Brien (2012), p. 223.

  173. 173.

    Decimus Junius Juvenal, Satires VI, p. 347. See also Reinisch (2001), p. 132, with further references.

  174. 174.

    Mégret and Hoffmann (2003), p. 335, with reference to: Amnesty International (2000) and the US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (2001).

  175. 175.

    Mégret and Hoffmann (2003), p. 335, with reference to: Amnesty International (2000) and the US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (2001) Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of, § 1.

  176. 176.

    Reinisch (2001), p. 132, with further references concerning the UN forces in the Congo in the early 1960s and Somalia in 1992.

  177. 177.

    For a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of allegations and investigations please see the statistics of the UN Conduct and Discipline Unit, https://cdu.unlb.org/AboutCDU.aspx. Accessed 18 July 2016. See also Dannenbaum (2010), pp. 117 et seqq.

  178. 178.

    See e.g. Defeis (2008), p. 204; O’Brien (2012), p. 224.

  179. 179.

    Sheeran (2011), p. 10.

  180. 180.

    Durch (2014), p. 20.

  181. 181.

    Murphy (2008), p. 76.

  182. 182.

    Murphy (2008), p. 76; Grenfell (2011), p. 109; Oswald et al. (2011), p. 395; O’Brien (2012), p. 224.

  183. 183.

    Secretary-General, Comprehensive report of conduct and discipline including full justification of all posts, 20 March 2008, UN Doc. A/62/758, para 14; Klappe (2011), p. 499; Grenfell (2011), p. 105 and Kanetake (2011), pp. 204 et seqq. with further information on the disciplinary procedure.

  184. 184.

    Klappe (2011), p. 499.

  185. 185.

    UN Secretary-General, Comprehensive report of conduct and discipline including full justification of all posts, 20. March 2008, UN Doc. A/62/758, para 14; Grenfell (2011), p. 105; Kanetake (2011), pp. 205 et seq.

  186. 186.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 36.

  187. 187.

    Grenfell (2011), p. 110.

  188. 188.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 395: ‘possible lacuna in criminal prosecution’. See also O’Brien (2012), pp. 224 et seq.

  189. 189.

    Kanetake (2011), p. 206.

  190. 190.

    See also Kanetake (2011), pp. 203 and 206.

  191. 191.

    UN DPKO (2003) Directives for Disciplinary Measures Involving Civilian Police and Military Observers, UN Doc. DPKO/CPD/DDCPO/2003/001, DPKO/MD/03/00994.

  192. 192.

    See para 23 UN DPKO (2003) Directives for Disciplinary Measures Involving Civilian Police and Military Observers, UN Doc. DPKO/CPD/DDCPO/2003/001, DPKO/MD/03/00994.

  193. 193.

    See also Kanetake (2011), p. 206.

  194. 194.

    Kanetake (2011), p. 206.

  195. 195.

    Grenfell (2011), p. 109.

  196. 196.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 401.

  197. 197.

    Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, 13 February 1946, New York, entered into force 17 September 1946, 1 UNTS 15.

  198. 198.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 401.

  199. 199.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 35 with further examples.

  200. 200.

    UN, Model Status-of-Forces Agreement for Peace-Keeping Operations, 9 October 1990, UN Doc A/45/594.

  201. 201.

    See also UN DPKO/DFS (2014) Policy on United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2014.01, para 22: United Nations police components consist of individual police officers (IPOs), both contracted and seconded, specialized police teams (SPTs), and formed police units (FPUs), who all serve as ‘experts on mission’. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Policy.pdf. Accessed 21 July 2016.

  202. 202.

    See also Oswald et al. (2011), p. 35.

  203. 203.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 35.

  204. 204.

    UN Office of the Legal Affairs, UN Juridical Yearbook 2004, Letter to the Acting Chair of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, regarding immunities of civilian police and military personnel, pp. 323–325, p. 324.

  205. 205.

    Section 23 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, 13 February 1946, New York, entered into force 17 September 1946, 1 UNTS 15. For details see Oswald et al. (2011), pp. 35 et seq. and 314 et seqq.

  206. 206.

    Difference Relating to Immunity from Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, Advisory Opinion (1999), 19 April 1999, ICJ Rep 1999, 62, 85; see also Rawski (2002), p. 114.

  207. 207.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 402.

  208. 208.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 402.

  209. 209.

    Oswald et al. (2011), p. 36. S.a. Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 395; Miller (2006), p. 92; Grenfell (2011), p. 110.

  210. 210.

    Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, 13 February 1946, New York, entered into force 17 September 1946, 1 UNTS 15.

  211. 211.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), pp. 397 et seq.

  212. 212.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 398.

  213. 213.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 398 with further references.

  214. 214.

    Oswald and Bates (2010), p. 398.

  215. 215.

    According to Art. 2 Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (Report of the International Law Commission, UN GAOR, 56th Sess., Supp. No. 10, UN Doc. A/56/10, 43 [2001]), and Art. 4 Draft articles on the responsibility of international organizations (Report of the International Law Commission, UN GAOR 66th Sess., Suppl. No. 10, UN Doc. A/66/10, 54 [2011]) (latter are not yet generally accepted as customary law) ‘there is an internationally wrongful act of a State/International Organization when conduct consisting of an action or omission:

    1. 1.

      is attributable to that organization/state under international law; and it

    2. 2.

      constitutes a breach of an international obligation of that organization/state.’

  216. 216.

    The different Courts established different tests like the ‘effective control’, the ‘overall control’ or ‘overall authority and control’ or the ‘effective overall control’. This issue cannot be addressed in detail. For further details see Burke (2012), pp. 15 et seqq.; Kondoch and Zwanenburg (2015), pp. 562 et seqq.

  217. 217.

    Dannenbaum (2010), p. 192; Sheeran (2011), p. 11.

  218. 218.

    Dannenbaum (2010), pp. 151 et seq.; he criticizes the Courts decisions and evaluates the findings especially regarding to the concepts on the ‘chain of command’.

  219. 219.

    McCoubrey and White (1996), p. 137.

  220. 220.

    See Dannenbaum (2010), pp. 140 et seqq.

  221. 221.

    Dannenbaum (2010), p. 192; see also Burke (2012).

  222. 222.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, para 9. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf.

  223. 223.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, para 9. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf.

  224. 224.

    von Einsiedel (2015), p. 5 with further references.

  225. 225.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2015) Policy, The Protection of Civilians in United Nations Peacekeeping, Ref. 2015.07.

  226. 226.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2015) Policy, The Protection of Civilians in United Nations Peacekeeping, Ref. 2015.07, pp. 8 et seq.

  227. 227.

    Sebastián (2015), p. 14.

  228. 228.

    Holt and Taylor (2009), p. 127.

  229. 229.

    Holt and Taylor (2009), p. 126; Sebastián (2015), p. 21.

  230. 230.

    Sebastián (2015).

  231. 231.

    Sebastián (2015), pp. 18 et seqq.

  232. 232.

    Sebastián (2015), p. 21.

  233. 233.

    von Einsiedel (2015), p. 5 with further references.

  234. 234.

    Sheeran (2011), p. 4.

  235. 235.

    Among others Wills (2006), pp. 29 et seq.; Månsson (2008b) Implementing the Concept of Protection of Civilians, pp. 558 et seq.; see also Kondoch (2011), pp. 87 et seqq. with further references.

  236. 236.

    For an analysis of the use of force and the guidelines see: Amnesty International (2015).

  237. 237.

    Decker (2008), p. 53.

  238. 238.

    The three core principles are: consent, impartiality and the minimum use of force; for an overview see Bellamy and Williams (2010), pp. 173 et seqq.

  239. 239.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2008) United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Principles and Guidelines, pp. 34 et seq. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/capstone_eng.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2016.

  240. 240.

    On the doctrine of self-defense and the doctrinal challenges see also Penny (2007), pp. 354 et seq. and 357.

  241. 241.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2010) Policy, Formed Police Units in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, Ref. 2009.32, Revised, para 12. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/formed_police_unit_policy_032010.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016.

  242. 242.

    See Penny (2007).

  243. 243.

    Sebastián (2015), pp. 22, 37.

  244. 244.

    Also Kondoch (2011), p. 86.

  245. 245.

    UN DPKO/DFS (2016) Guidelines on Police Operations in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, Ref. 2015.15, para 87. http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/documents/Guidelines_Operations.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016; see also Penny (2007), pp. 356 et seqq.

  246. 246.

    UN DPKO/DFS Policy on Formed Police Units in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 1 March 2010, Ref. 2009. 32, para 37. Accessed 28 July 2016.

  247. 247.

    See also Kondoch (2011), p. 86.

  248. 248.

    See also Kondoch (2011), p. 86.

  249. 249.

    See also Oswald (2011), p. 136.

  250. 250.

    Sebastián (2015), p. 22 makes this statement with a view to the authority of FPUs with non-executive mandates.

  251. 251.

    International Committee of the Red Cross (2015).

  252. 252.

    Oswald (2011), p. 124.

  253. 253.

    Oswald (2011), p. 124.

  254. 254.

    Kondoch (2011), p. 86.

  255. 255.

    International Committee of the Red Cross (2015), Oswald (2011), pp. 123 et seqq.

  256. 256.

    Kondoch (2011), p. 85.

  257. 257.

    Oswald (2011), p. 124.

  258. 258.

    Oswald (2011), pp. 138 et seqq.

  259. 259.

    Further examples given by Sebastián (2015), pp. 22 et seq.

  260. 260.

    Kondoch (2011), pp. 85 et seq.

  261. 261.

    See also: Kondoch (2011), p. 86.

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Acknowledgements

The author is grateful for feedback on an earlier draft from: Ayşe-Martina Böhringer, Elena Hilgers, Magdalena Jaś-Nowopolska, Professor Thilo Marauhn, Daniel Mengeler, Sven Simon, Ignaz Stegmiller and Marie-Christin Stenzel. The article is attributable to the writer alone.

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Thorn, J. (2018). United Nations Police Missions and Human Rights. In: Alleweldt, R., Fickenscher, G. (eds) The Police and International Human Rights Law. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71339-7_12

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