Treatment Strategies for Depression in Youth

  • Gail N. Kemp
  • Erin E. O’Connor
  • Tessa K. Kritikos
  • Laura Curren
  • Martha C. Tompson
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Although depression in adults has been widely studied, the investigation of depression in youth has emerged more recently as a growing field. Despite relatively low rates of depression in children prior to adolescence, the literature indicates that prevalence of depression increases after puberty. This chapter covers the predominant psychosocial treatment approaches commonly used to treat depression in youth. It also covers critical issues to consider, a review of the literature on interventions and the effectiveness, and recommendations for future research. Recent developments in the treatment of depression have positive implications for the field; however, there is currently a need for more widely available effective treatments for youth with depression across settings and care models.

Keywords

Mood disorders Depression Children Adolescents Risk factors Treatment 

References

  1. Abela, J. R., & Hankin, B. L. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of depression in children and adolescents. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aber, L. J., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 324–348.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.2.324 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ackerson, J., Scogin, F., McKendree-Smith, N., & Lyman, R. D. (1998). Cognitive bibliotherapy for mild and moderate adolescent depressive symptomatology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(4), 685–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alfano, C. A., Zakem, A. H., Costa, N. M., Taylor, L. K., & Weems, C. F. (2009). Sleep problems and their relation to cognitive factors, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 26(6), 503–512.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20443 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2006). American psychiatric association practice guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Compendium 2006. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  6. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(01), 57–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Apter-Levi, Y., Pratt, M., Vakart, A., Feldman, M., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2016). Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 64, 47–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.11.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Archie, S., Kazemi, A. Z., & Akhtar-Danesh, N. (2010). Comorbid depression and binge drinking: Risk for suicidality among youth. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122, S32–S41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnone, D., McKie, S., Elliott, R., Thomas, E. J., Downey, D., Juhasz, G., … Anderson, I. M. (2012). Increased amygdala responses to sad but not fearful faces in major depression: Relation to mood state and pharmacological treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(8), 841–850.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11121774 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asarnow, J. R., Jaycox, L. H., Duan, N., LaBorde, A. P., Rea, M. M., Murray, P., … Wells, K. B. (2005). Effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention for adolescent depression in primary care clinics: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(3), 311–319.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.3.311 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asarnow, J. R., Scott, C. V., & Mintz, J. (2002). A combined cognitive-behavioral family education intervention for depression in children: A treatment development study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(2), 221–229.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014573803928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Avenevoli, S., Knight, E., Kessler, R. C., & Merikangas, K. R. (2008). Epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. In J. Z. Abela, B. L. Hankin, J. Z. Abela, & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 6–32). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bardone, A. M., Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., & Dickson, N. (1996). Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 811–829.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400007446 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrett, P. M., Dadds, M. R., & Rapee, R. M. (1996). Family treatment of childhood anxiety: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 333–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beardslee, W. R., Gladstone, T. R., & O’Connor, E. E. (2011). Transmission and prevention of mood disorders among children of affectively ill parents: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(11), 1098–1109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.07.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beauchaine, T. P., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. K. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 174–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beauchaine, T. P., & Thayer, J. F. (2015). Heart rate variability as a transdiagnostic biomarker of psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98(2), 338–350.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.08.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brent, D., Emslie, G., Clarke, G., Wagner, K., Asarnow, J., Keller, M., … Birmaher, B. (2008). Switching to another SSRI or to venlafaxine with or without cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with SSRI-resistant depression: The TORDIA randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 299(8), 901–913.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.299.8.901 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brent, D. A., Holder, D., Kolko, D., Birmaher, B., Baugher, M., Roth, C., … Johnson, B. A. (1997). A clinical psychotherapy trial for adolescent depression comparing cognitive, family, and supportive therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(9), 877–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brent, D. A., Poling, K., McKain, B., & Baugher, M. (1993). A psychoeducational program for families of affectively ill children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(4), 770–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bridge, J. A., Goldstein, T. R., & Brent, D. A. (2006). Adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3–4), 372–394.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01615.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bridge, J. A., Iyengar, S., Salary, C. B., Barbe, R. P., Birmaher, B., Pincus, H. A., … Brent, D. A. (2007). Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 297(15), 1683–1696.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.297.15.1683 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burwell, R. A., & Shirk, S. R. (2007). Subtypes of rumination in adolescence: Associations between brooding, reflection, depressive symptoms, and coping. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(1), 56–65.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410709336568 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Butler, L., Miezitis, S., Friedman, R., & Cole, E. (1980). The effect of two school-based intervention programs on depressive symptoms in preadolescents. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Suicide: Facts at a glance. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/suicide-datasheet-a.pdf
  26. Céspedes, Y. M., & Huey, S. J., Jr. (2008). Depression in Latino adolescents: A cultural discrepancy perspective. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(2), 168–172.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.14.2.168 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cipriani, A., Zhou, X., Del Giovane, C., Hetrick, S. E., Qin, B., Whittington, C., … Cuijpers, P. (2016). Comparative efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: A network meta-analysis. The Lancet, 388(10047), 881–890.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30385-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clarke, G., Debar, L., Lynch, F., Powell, J., Gale, J., O'Connor, E., … Hertert, S. (2005). A randomized effectiveness trial of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for depressed adolescents receiving antidepressant medication. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(9), 888–898.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-8567(09)62194-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clarke, G., & Harvey, A. G. (2012). The complex role of sleep in adolescent depression. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 21(2), 385–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2012.01.006 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., Scheeber, L. B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(3), 312–321.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199503000-00016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F., Polen, M., Gale, J., Beardslee, W., … Seeley, J. (2001). A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(12), 1127–1134.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.12.1127 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F., Polen, M., Gale, J., O’Connor, E., … Debar, L. (2002). Group cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescent offspring of depressed parents in a health maintenance organization. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(3), 305–313.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200203000-00010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clarke, G. N., Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., & Seeley, J. R. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of adolescent depression: Efficacy of acute group treatment and booster sessions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(3), 272–279.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199903000-00014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Costello, E., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2006). Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(12), 1263–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01682.x Google Scholar
  35. Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., Stangl, D. K., Tweed, D. L., Erkanli, A., & Worthman, C. M. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth: Goals, designs, methods, and prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(12), 1129–1136.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120067012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Costello, E. J., Copeland, W., & Angold, A. (2011). Trends in psychopathology across the adolescent years: What changes when children become adolescents, and when adolescents become adults? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(10), 1015–1025.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02446.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., McCauley, E., Smith, C. J., Stevens, A. L., & Sylvers, P. (2005). Psychological, autonomic, and serotonergic correlates of parasuicide among adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 17(4), 1105–1127. https://doi.org/10.10170S0954579405050522 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cuffe, S. P., Waller, J. L., Cuccaro, M. L., Pumariega, A. J., & Garrison, C. Z. (1995). Race and gender differences in the treatment of psychiatric disorders in young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(11), 1536–1543.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199511000-00021 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cuijpers, P., Geraedts, A. S., van Oppen, P., Andersson, G., Markowitz, J. C., & van Straten, A. (2011). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(6), 581–592.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10101411 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., van Oppen, P., & Andersson, G. (2008). Are psychological and pharmacologic interventions equally effective in the treatment of adult depressive disorders? A meta-analysis of comparative studies. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(11), 1675–1685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. D’Angelo, E. J., & Augenstein, T. M. (2012). Developmentally informed evaluation of depression: Evidence-based instruments. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 21(2), 279–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2011.12.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davey, C. G., Yücel, M., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The emergence of depression in adolescence: Development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Cuyper, S., Timbremont, B., Braet, C., De Backer, V., & Wullaert, T. (2004). Treating depressive symptoms in school children: A pilot study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 105–114.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-0366-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. DePrince, A. P., & Shirk, S. R. (2013). Adapting cognitive-behavioral therapy for depressed adolescents exposed to interpersonal trauma: A case study with two teens. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(2), 189–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2012.07.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Diamond, G. S., Reis, B. F., Diamond, G. M., Siqueland, L., & Isaacs, L. (2002). Attachment-based family therapy for depressed adolescents: A treatment development study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(10), 1190–1196.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200210000-00008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Diamond, G. S., Wintersteen, M. B., Brown, G. K., Diamond, G. M., Gallop, R., Shelef, K., & Levy, S. (2010). Attachment-based family therapy for adolescents with suicidal ideation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(2), 122–131.Google Scholar
  47. Dietz, L. J., Weinberg, R. J., Brent, D. A., & Mufson, L. (2015). Family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed preadolescents: Examining efficacy and potential treatment mechanisms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(3), 191–199.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Elkind, D. (1978). Understanding the young adolescent. Adolescence, 13(49), 127–134.Google Scholar
  49. Emerson, E. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(1), 51–58.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00464.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Emslie, G. J., Armitage, R., Weinberg, W. A., Rush, A. J., Mayes, T. L., & Hoffmann, R. F. (2001). Sleep polysomnography as a predictor of recurrence in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 4(2), 159–168.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1461145701002383 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Emslie, G. J., Kennard, B. D., Mayes, T. L., Nakonezny, P. A., Zhu, L., Tao, R., … Croarkin, P. (2012). Insomnia moderates outcome of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor treatment in depressed youth. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 22(1), 21–28.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0096 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Emslie, G. J., Mayes, T., Porta, G., Vitiello, B., Clarke, G., Wagner, K. D., … Kennard, B. (2010). Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): Week 24 outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(7), 782–791.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09040552 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Emslie, G. J., Kennard, B. D., Mayes, T. L., Nightingale-Teresi, J., Carmody, T., Hughes, C. W., … Rintelmann, J. W. (2008) Fluoxetine Versus Placebo in Preventing Relapse of Major Depression in Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(4):459–467. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.bu.edu/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07091453
  54. Eyberg, S. (1988). Parent-child interaction therapy: Integration of traditional and behavioral concerns. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 10(1), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fine, S., Forth, A., Gilbert, M., & Haley, G. (1991). Group therapy for adolescent depressive disorder: A comparison of social skills and therapeutic support. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 79–85.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199101000-00012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fleming, J. E., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1993). The outcome of adolescent depression in the Ontario child health study follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(1), 28–33.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199301000-00005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Flory, V. (2004). A novel clinical intervention for severe childhood depression and anxiety. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9, 9–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Forbes, E. E. (2009). Where’s the fun in that? Broadening the focus on reward function in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 66(3), 199–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.05.001 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Forbes, E. E., & Dahl, R. E. (2005). Neural systems of positive affect: Relevance to understanding child and adolescent depression? Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 827–850.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457940505039X PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Forti-Buratti, M. A., Saikia, R., Wilkinson, E. L., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2016). Psychological treatments for depression in preadolescent children (12 years and younger): Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(10), 1045–1054.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-016-0834-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Garber, J., & Flynn, C. (2001). Vulnerability to depression in childhood and adolescence. In R. E. Ingram & J. M. Price (Eds.), Vulnerability to psychopathology: Risk across the lifespan (pp. 175–225). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  62. Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 292–306.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016330802348 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gillham, J., Reivich, K., Jaycox, L. H., & Seligman, M. (1995). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children: Two year follow-up. Psychological Science, 6(8), 343–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)90160-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gillham, J. E., Reivich, K. J., Freres, D. R., Lascher, M., Litzinger, S., Shatté, A., & Seligman, M. E. (2006). School-based prevention of depression and anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: A pilot of a parent intervention component. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3), 323–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (2002). Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(1), 1–27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0080-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goodyer, I., Dubicka, B., Wilkinson, P., Kelvin, R., Roberts, C., Byford, S., … Harrington, R. (2007). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and routine specialist care with and without cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with major depression: Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 335, 142–146.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39224.494340.55 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gotlib, I. H., Sivers, H., Gabrieli, J. D., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Goldin, P., Minor, K. L., & Canli, T. (2005). Subgenual anterior cingulate activation to valenced emotional stimuli in major depression. Neuroreport, 16(16), 1731–1734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hamilton, J. L., Stange, J. P., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2015). Stress and the development of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression explain sex differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(5), 702–714.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702614545479 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hammen, C. (2002). Context of stress in families of children with depressed parents. In S. H. Goodman & I. H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 175–199). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hammen, C. (2006). Stress generation in depression: Reflections on origins, research, and future directions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(9), 1065–1082.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20293 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hammen, C., Hazel, N. A., Brennan, P. A., & Najman, J. (2012). Intergenerational transmission and continuity of stress and depression: Depressed women and their offspring in 20 years of follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 42(5), 931–942.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711001978 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hankin, B. L., Mermelstein, R., & Roesch, L. (2007). Sex differences in adolescent depression: Stress exposure and reactivity models. Child Development, 78(1), 279–295.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00997.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hankin, B. L., Nederhof, E., Oppenheimer, C. W., Jenness, J., Young, J. F., Abela, J. R. Z., ... Oldehinkel, A. J. (2011). Differential susceptibility in youth: Evidence that 5-HTTLPR x positive parenting is associated with positive affect ‘for better and worse’. Translational Psychiatry, 1(10).  https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2011.44
  75. Hankin, B. L., Wetter, E. K., & Flory, K. (2012). Appetitive motivation and negative emotion reactivity among remitted depressed youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41(5), 611–620.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.710162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hankin, B. L., Young, J. F., Abela, J. R. Z., Smolen, A., Jenness, J. L., Gulley, L. D., … Oppenheimer, C. W. (2015). Depression from childhood into late adolescence: Influence of gender, development, genetic susceptibility, and peer stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(4), 803–816.  https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000089 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Harter, S. (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Hetrick, S. E., Cox, G. R., & Merry, S. N. (2015). Where to go from here? An exploratory meta-analysis of the most promising approaches to depression prevention programs for children and adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(5), 4758–4795.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120504758 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hollon, S. D., Garber, J., & Shelton, R. C. (2005). Treatment of depression in adolescents with cognitive behavior therapy and medications: A commentary on the TADS project. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12(2), 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Huey, S. J., Jr., & Polo, A. J. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for ethnic minority youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 262–301.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701820174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Iwata, N., Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (2002). Race/ethnicity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling young adults: A differential item functioning analysis. Psychiatry Research, 110(3), 281–289.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1781(02)00102-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jaycox, L. H., Reivich, K. J., Gillham, J. E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in schoolchildren. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 32(8), 801–816.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)90160-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kahn, J. S., Kehle, T. J., Jensen, W. R., & Clark, E. (1990). Comparisons of cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, and self modeling interventions for depression among middle school students. School Psychology Review, 19(2), 196–211.Google Scholar
  84. Kane, P., & Garber, J. (2004). The relations among depression in fathers, children’s psychopathology, and father–child conflict: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(3), 339–360.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.03.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kaslow, N. J., Adamson, L. B., & Collins, M. H. (2000). A developmental psychopathology perspective on the cognitive components of child and adolescent depression. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 491–510). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.bu.edu/10.1007/978-1-4615-4163-9_26
  86. Kaslow, N. J., Baskin, M. L., Wyckoff, S. C., & Kaslow, F. W. (2002). A biopsychosocial treatment approach for depressed children and adolescents. In Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy: Integrative/eclectic (Vol. 4, pp. 31–57). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  87. Kaslow, N. J., Jones, C. A., Palin, F., Pinsof, W. M., & Lebow, J. L. (2005). A relational perspective on depressed children: Family patterns and interventions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Kataoka, S., Novins, D. K., & DeCarlo Santiago, C. (2010). The practice of evidence-based treatments in ethnic minority youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(4), 775–789.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2010.07.008 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kataoka, S. H., Zhang, L., & Wells, K. B. (2002). Unmet need for mental health care among US children: Variation by ethnicity and insurance status. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(9), 1548–1555.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.9.1548 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kelly, A. B., Mason, W. A., Chmelka, M. B., Herrenkohl, T. I., Kim, M. J., Patton, G. C., … Catalano, R. F. (2016). Depressed mood during early to middle adolescence: A bi-national longitudinal study of the unique impact of family conflict. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(8), 1604–1613.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0433-2 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kerfoot, M., Harrington, R., Harrington, V., Rogers, J., & Verduyn, C. (2004). A step too far? Randomized trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy delivered by social workers to depressed adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(2), 92–99.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-0362-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., … Wang, P. S. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(23), 3095–3105.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.23.3095 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. King, C. A., & Kirschenbaum, D. S. (1990). An experimental evaluation of a school-based program for children at-risk: Wisconsin early intervention. Journal of Community Psychology, 18(2), 167–177.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(199004)18:2<167::AID-JCOP2290180208>3.0.CO2-Z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Klein, J. B., Jacobs, R. H., & Reinecke, M. A. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: A meta-analytic investigation of changes in effect-size estimates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(11), 1403–1413.  https://doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e3180592aaa PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Koenig, J., Kemp, A. H., Beauchaine, T. P., Thayer, J. F., & Kaess, M. (2016). Depression and resting state heart rate variability in children and adolescents—A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 136–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kovacs, M., Feinberg, T. L., Crouse-Novak, M. A., Paulauskas, S. L., Pollock, M., & Finklestein, R. (1984). Depressive disorders in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41(3), 643–649.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1984.01790140019002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kovacs, M., Sherrill, J., George, C. J., Pollock, M., Tumuluru, R. V., & Ho, V. (2006). Contextual emotion-regulation therapy for childhood depression: Description and pilot testing of a new intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(8), 892–903.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000222878.74162.5a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kovacs, M. Obrosky, S., & George, C. (2016). The course of major depressive disorder from childhood to young adulthood: Recovery and recurrence in a longitudinal observational study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 203:374–381. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.bu.edu/10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.042Google Scholar
  99. Kroll, L., Harrington, R., Jayson, D., Fraser, J., & Gowers, S. (1996). Pilot study of continuation cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depression in adolescent psychiatric patients. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1156–1161.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199609000-00013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lakdawalla, Z., Hankin, B. L., & Mermelstein, R. (2007). Cognitive theories of depression in children and adolescents: A conceptual and quantitative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10(1), 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-006-0013-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lenze, S. N., Pautsch, J., & Luby, J. (2011). Parent–child interaction therapy emotion development: A novel treatment for depression in preschool children. Depression and Anxiety, 28(2), 153–159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20770 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lewinsohn, P. M., Clarke, F. N., Hops, H., & Andrews, J. (1990). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 21, 385–401.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80353-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lewinsohn, P. M., & Clarke, G. N. (1999). Psychosocial treatments for adolescent depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 329–342.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00055-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Klein, D. N., & Seeley, J. R. (1999). Natural course of adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(1), 56–63.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199901000-00020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Seely, J. R. (1998). Major depressive disorder in older adolescents: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 18(7), 765–794.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00010-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III—R disorders in high school students. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 133–144. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.bu.edu/10.1037/0021-843X.102.1.133
  107. Liddle, B., & Spence, S. H. (1990). Cognitive-behaviour therapy with depressed primary school children: A cautionary note. Behavioral Psychotherapy, 18(2), 85–102.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0141347300018218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lindsey, M. A., Chambers, K., Pohle, C., Beall, P., & Lucksted, A. (2013). Understanding the behavioral determinants of mental health service use by urban, under-resourced Black youth: Adolescent and caregiver perspectives. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22(1), 107–121.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9668-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Liu, R. T., & Alloy, L. B. (2010). Stress generation in depression: A systematic review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future study. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(5), 582–593.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.010 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Liu, X., Buysse, D. J., Gentzler, A. L., Kiss, E., Mayer, L., Kapornai, K., … Kovacs, M. (2007). Insomnia and hypersomnia associated with depressive phenomenology and comorbidity in childhood depression. Sleep, 30(1), 83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lovato, N., & Gradisar, M. (2014). A meta-analysis and model of the relationship between sleep and depression in adolescents: Recommendations for future research and clinical practice. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18(6), 521–529.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.03.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(5), 561–592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00100-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Luby, J., Lenze, S., & Tillman, R. (2012). A novel early intervention for preschool depression: Findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 313–322.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02483.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Maag, J. W., & Reid, R. (2006). Depression among students with learning disabilities assessing the risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(1), 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Magnuson, K. M., & Constantino, J. N. (2011). Characterization of depression in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 32(4), 332–340.  https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e318213f56c PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Manber, R., Edinger, J. D., Gress, J. L., San Pedro-Salcedo, M. G., Kuo, T. F., & Kalista, T. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia enhances depression outcome in patients with comorbid major depressive disorder and insomnia. Sleep, 31(4), 489–495.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Marcotte, D., & Baron, P. (1993). L’efficacite d’une stategie d’intervention emotion-rationelle aupres d’adolescents depressifs du milieu scolaire (The efficacy of a school-based rational-emotive intervention strategy with depressive adolescents). Canadian Journal of Counseling, 27, 77–92.Google Scholar
  118. Mark Cummings, E., Keller, P. S., & Davies, P. T. (2005). Towards a family process model of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms: Exploring multiple relations with child and family functioning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 479–489.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00368.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Matson, J. L., & Nebel-Schwalm, M. S. (2007). Comorbid psychopathology with autism spectrum disorder in children: An overview. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28(4), 341–352.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2005.12.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mayes, T. L., Tao, R., Rintelmann, J. W., Carmody, T., Hughes, C. W., Kennard, B. D., … Emslie, G. J. (2007). Do children and adolescents have differential response rates in placebo-controlled trials of fluoxetine? CNS Spectrums, 12(2), 147–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McLaughlin, K. A., Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2007). Racial/ethnic differences in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 801–816.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9128-1 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Melvin, G. A., Dudley, A. L., Gordon, M. S., Ford, S., Taffe, J., & Tonge, B. J. (2013). What happens to depressed adolescents? A follow-up study into early adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 298–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Melvin, G. A., Tonge, B. J., King, N. J., Heyne, D., Gordon, M. S., & Klimkeit, E. (2006). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, and their combination for adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(10), 1151–1161.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000233157.21925.71 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Milan, S., Snow, S., & Belay, S. (2009). Depressive symptoms in mothers and children: Preschool attachment as a moderator of risk. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 1019–1033.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016164 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Miranda, J., Bernal, G., Lau, A., Kohn, L., Hwang, W. C., & LaFromboise, T. (2005). State of the science on psychosocial interventions for ethnic minorities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 113–142.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143822 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mufson, L., Dorta, K. P., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Olfson, M., & Weissman, M. M. (2004). A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(6), 577–584.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.6.577 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mufson, L., Weissman, M. M., Moreau, D., & Garfinkel, R. (1999). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(6), 573–579. https://doi.org/10-1001/pubs.Arch Gen Psychiatry-ISSN-0003-990x-56-6-yoa8163 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Murray, L., Arteche, A., Fearon, P., Halligan, S., Goodyer, I., & Cooper, P. (2011). Maternal postnatal depression and the development of depression in offspring up to 16 years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(5), 460–470.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. O’Shea, G., Spence, S. H., & Donovan, C. L. (2015). Group versus individual interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43(01), 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465814000216 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Okamura, K. H., Ebesutani, C., Bloom, R., Higa-McMillan, C. K., Nakamura, B. J., & Chorpita, B. F. (2016). Differences in internalizing symptoms across specific ethnic minority groups: An analysis across Chinese American, Filipino American, Japanese American, native Hawaiian, and white youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0488-4
  131. Pincus, D. B., Eyberg, S. M., & Choate, M. L. (2005). Adapting parent-child interaction therapy for young children with separation anxiety disorder. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(2), 163–181.Google Scholar
  132. Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Gurley, D., Brook, J., & Ma, Y. (1998). The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(1), 56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.1.56 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Poppelaars, M., Tak, Y. R., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., Engels, R. C. M. E., Lobel, A., Merry, S., … Granic, I. (2016). A randomized controlled trial comparing two cognitive-behavioral programs for adolescent girls with subclinical depression: A school-based program (Op Volle Kracht) and a computerized program (SPARX). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 80, 33–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.03.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Puig-Antich, J., Kaufman, J., Ryan, N. D., Williamson, D. E., Dahl, R. E., Lukens, E., … Nelson, B. (1993). The psychosocial functioning and family environment of depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(2), 244–253.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199303000-00003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Puig-Antich, J., Lukens, E., Davies, M., Goetz, D., Brennan-Quattrock, J., & Todak, G. (1985a). Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. I. Interpersonal relationships during the depressive episode. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 500–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Puig-Antich, J., Lukens, E., Davies, M., Goetz, J., Brennan-Quattrock, J., & Todak, G. (1985b). Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 511–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rabinowitz, J. A., Drabick, D. A., & Reynolds, M. D. (2016). Family conflict moderates the relation between negative mood and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(12), 3574–3583.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0501-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Reed, M. K. (1994). Social skills training to reduce depression in adolescents. Adolescence, 29, 293–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Reinecke, M. A., Ryan, N. E., & DuBois, D. L. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy of depression and depressive symptoms during adolescence: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(1), 26–34.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199801000-00013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Reynolds, W. M., & Coats, K. I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(5), 653–660.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.5.653 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rice, F., Harold, G. T., Shelton, K. H., & Thapar, A. (2006). Family conflict interacts with genetic liability in predicting childhood and adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(7), 841–848.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000219834.08602.44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Richardson, L. P., Ludman, E., McCauley, E., Lindenbaum, J., Larison, C., Zhou, C., … Katon, W. (2014). Collaborative care for adolescents with depression in primary care: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 312(8), 809–816.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.9259 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Roane, B. M., & Taylor, D. J. (2008). Adolescent insomnia as a risk factor for early adult depression and substance abuse. Sleep, 31(10), 1351–1356.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Roberts, R. E., & Duong, H. T. (2013). Depression and insomnia among adolescents: A prospective perspective. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148(1), 66–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.049 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rodríguez-Naranjo, C., & Caño, A. (2016). Daily stress and coping styles in adolescent hopelessness depression: Moderating effects of gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 109–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rohde, P., Clarke, G. N., Mace, D. E., Jorgensen, J. S., & Seeley, J. R. (2004). An efficacy/effectiveness study of cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with and without comorbid major depression and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(6), 660–668.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000121067.29744.41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rose, A. J., Glick, G. C., Smith, R. L., Schwartz-Mette, R. A., & Borowski, S. K. (2016). Co-rumination exacerbates stress generation among adolescents with depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0205-1
  148. Rose, T., Joe, S., & Lindsey, M. (2011). Perceived stigma and depression among black adolescents in outpatient treatment. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(1), 161–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.08.029 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rosselló, J., & Bernal, G. (1999). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal treatments for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 734–745.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.67.5.734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rosselló, J., Bernal, G., & Rivera, C. (2008). Randomized trial of CBT and IPT in individual and group format for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 234–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Lindberg, N., Herzberg, D., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Toward an interpersonal life-stress model of depression: The developmental context of stress generation. Development and Psychopathology, 12(2), 215–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Saleh, A., Potter, G. G., McQuoid, D. R., Boyd, B., Turner, R., MacFall, J. R., & Taylor, W. D. (2017). Effects of early life stress on depression, cognitive performance and brain morphology. Psychological Medicine, 47(1), 171–181.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716002403 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Saulnier, C., & Volkmar, F. (2007). Mental health problems in people with autism and related disorders. In N. Bouras & G. Holt (Eds.), Psychiatric and behavioural disorders in intellectual and developmental disabilities (2nd ed., pp. 215–224). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Shaffer, D., Gould, M. S., Fisher, P., Trautman, P., Moreau, D., Kleinman, M., & Flory, M. (1996). Psychiatric diagnosis in child and adolescent suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(4), 339–348.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830040075012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sheeber, L., Hops, H., & Davis, B. (2001). Family processes in adolescent depression. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(1), 19–35.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009524626436 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sheeber, L. B., Allen, N. B., Leve, C., Davis, B., Shortt, J. W., & Katz, L. F. (2009). Dynamics of affective experience and behavior in depressed adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(11), 1419–1427.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02148.x PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sheeber, L. B., Davis, B., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2007). Adolescents’ relationships with their mothers and fathers: Associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 144–154.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.144 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shih, J. H., Eberhart, N. K., Hammen, C. L., & Brennan, P. A. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(1), 103–115.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3501_9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Shirk, S. R., DePrince, A. P., Crisostomo, P. S., & Labus, J. (2014). Cognitive behavioral therapy for depressed adolescents exposed to interpersonal trauma: An initial effectiveness trial. Psychotherapy, 51(1), 167–179.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034845 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Silk, J. S., Davis, S., McMakin, D. L., Dahl, R. E., & Forbes, E. E. (2012). Why do anxious children become depressed teenagers? The role of social evaluative threat and reward processing. Psychological Medicine, 42(10), 2095–2107.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712000207 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith, P., Scott, R., Eshkevari, E., Jatta, F., Leigh, E., Harris, V., … Yule, W. (2015). Computerised CBT for depressed adolescents: Randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 73, 104–110.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2015.07.009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Stark, K. D. (1990). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  163. Stark, K. D., Hoke, J., Ballatore, M., Valdez, C., Scammaca, N., & Green, J. (2005). Treatment of child and adolescent disorders. In Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders (2nd ed., pp. 239–265). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  164. Stark, K. D., Reynolds, W. M., & Kaslow, N. J. (1987). A comparison of the relative efficacy self-control therapy and a behavioral problem-solving therapy for depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 91–113.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00916468 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stark, K. D., Sander, J., & Hauser, M. (2006). Depressive disorders during childhood and adolescence. In Treatment of childhood disorders (3rd ed., pp. 336–407). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  166. Strang, J. F., Kenworthy, L., Daniolos, P., Case, L., Wills, M. C., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2012). Depression and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders without intellectual disability. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 406–412.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.06.015 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Straub, J., Plener, P. L., Sproeber, N., Sprenger, L., Koelch, M. G., Groen, G., & Abler, B. (2015). Neural correlates of successful psychotherapy of depression in adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 183(1), 239–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tao, R., Calley, C. S., Hart, J., Mayes, T. L., Nakonezny, P. A., Lu, H., … Emslie, G. J. (2012). Brain activity in adolescent major depressive disorder before and after fluoxetine treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(4), 381–388.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11040615 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tompson, M. C., Asarnow, J. R., Mintz, J., & Cantwell, D. P. (2015). Parental depression risk: Comparing youth with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and community controls. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5(4), 193–201.Google Scholar
  170. Tompson, M. C., Boger, K. D., & Asarnow, J. R. (2012). Enhancing the developmental appropriateness of treatment for depression in youth: Integrating the family in treatment. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 21(2), 345–384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2012.01.003 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tompson, M. C., Pierre, C. B., McNeil Haber, F., Fogler, J. M., Groff, A., & Asarnow, J. R. (2007). Family-focused treatment for childhood-onset depressive disorders: Results of an open trial. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(3), 403–420.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104507078474 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tompson, M. C., Langer, D. A., Hughes, J. L., & Asarnow, J. R. (2017a). Treatment of preadolescent depression: Model and case illustrations. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24, 269–287.Google Scholar
  173. Tompson, M. C., Sugar, C., Langer, D. A., & Asarnow, J. R. (2017b). A randomized clinical trial comparing family focused treatment and individual supportive therapy for depression in childhood and early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(6), 515–523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.018
  174. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) Team. (2004). Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292(7), 807–820.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.7.807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. United States Food and Drug Administration. (2004). Labeling change request letter for antidepressant medications. Accessed 30 Nov 2004 [On-line]. Available: http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/antidepressants/SSRIlabelChange.htm
  176. Vitiello, B., Emslie, G., Clarke, G., Wagner, K. D., Asarnow, J. R., Keller, M. B., … Mayes, T. L. (2010). Long-term outcome of adolescent depression initially resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment: A follow-up study of the TORDIA sample. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(3), 388–396.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.09m05885blu CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Vostanis, P., Feehan, C., Grattan, E., & Bickerton, W. (1996). A randomized controlled out-patient trial of cognitive-behavioural treatment for children and adolescents with depression: 9-month follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders, 40(1–2), 105–116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0327(96)00054-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Webb, C. A., Auerbach, R. P., & DeRubeis, R. J. (2012). Processes of change in CBT of adolescent depression: Review and recommendations. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41(5), 654–665.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.704842 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Weersing, V. R., Rozenman, M., Gonzalez, A., Jeffreys, M., Porta, G., & Brent, D. A. (2016). 48.5 Brief behavioral therapy for pediatric anxiety and depression in primary care: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.07.406
  180. Weersing, V. R., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). Community clinic treatment of depressed youth: Benchmarking usual care against CBT clinical trials. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 299–310.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.70.2.299 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Weiss, B., & Garber, J. (2003). Developmental differences in the phenomenology of depression. Development and Psychopathology, 15(2), 403–430.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579403000221 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Gameroff, M. J., Warner, V., Pilowsky, D., Kohad, R. G., … Talati, A. (2016). Offspring of depressed parents: 30 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(6), 1001–1008.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15101327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Weissman, M. M., Wolk, S., Wickramaratne, P., Goldstein, R. B., Adams, P., Greenwald, S., … Steinberg, D. (1999). Children with prepubertal-onset major depressive disorder and anxiety grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(9), 794–801.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.9.794 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Weisz, J. R., Jensen Doss, A. J., & Hawley, K. M. (2005). Youth psychotherapy outcome research: A review and critique of the evidence base. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 337–363.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141449 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Weisz, J. R., McCarty, C. A., & Valeri, S. M. (2006). Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 132–149.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.132 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Weisz, J. R., Thurber, C., Sweeney, L., Proffitt, V., & LeGagnoux, G. (1997). Brief treatment of mild to moderate child depression using primary and secondary controlled enhancement training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(4), 703–707.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.65.4.703 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Weisz, J. R., Weiss, B., Han, S. S., Granger, D. A., & Morton, T. (1995). Effects of psychotherapy with children and adolescents revisited: A meta-analysis of treatment outcome studies. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 450–468.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.450 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Wilson, S., & Durbin, C. E. (2010). Effects of paternal depression on fathers’ parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 167–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.10.007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Wood, A., Harrington, R., & Moore, A. (1996). Controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioural intervention in adolescent patients with depressive disorders. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 37(6), 737–746.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01466.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Yang, T. T., Simmons, A. N., Matthews, S. C., Tapert, S. F., Frank, G. K., Max, J. E., … Wu, J. (2010). Adolescents with major depression demonstrate increased amygdala activation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(1), 42–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2009.09.004 Google Scholar
  191. Yap, M. B. H., & Jorm, A. F. (2015). Parental factors associated with childhood anxiety, depression, and internalizing problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175(1), 424–440.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.050 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Young, C. C., & Dietrich, M. S. (2015). Stressful life events, worry, and rumination predict depressive and anxiety symptoms in young adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 28(1), 35–42.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12102 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Young, J. F., Mufson, L., & Davies, M. (2006). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training: An indicated preventive intervention for depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(12), 1254–1262.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01667.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Young, J. F., Mufson, L., & Gallop, R. (2010). Preventing depression: A randomized trial of interpersonal psychotherapy and adolescent skills training. Depression and Anxiety, 27(5), 426–433.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20664 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gail N. Kemp
    • 1
  • Erin E. O’Connor
    • 1
  • Tessa K. Kritikos
    • 1
  • Laura Curren
    • 1
  • Martha C. Tompson
    • 1
  1. 1.Boston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations