Best Practices Around the World: Some Suggestions for European Cities
In addition to European experiences, which are often trapped within consolidated paths, in other parts of the world, some cities are opening up to welcoming experimental forms of small-scale bottom-up urban planning. Questions related to social sustainability are in many cases the bearers of innovation outside of conventional urban planning and design paths. The examples of North American cities rely a lot on experimentation through close involvement with civil society, which assumes responsibility for the city’s living spaces, becoming a promoter of health-based initiatives, even from the economic point of view. Experimentation in the field is frequently accompanied by guidelines and tools charged with providing technical offices and designers with orientations rather than rigid rules. In addition, the impression is that it is the context that guides the interventions, avoiding simplistic, ineffective generalizations. With all the differences among the situations, health and urban planning are also themes addressed by South American cities. In many cases, they deal with approaches that are specifically health related and aimed at guaranteeing a minimum level of services, especially in the very diffuse areas of contemporary urban “informality” (vilas, favelas, etc.).
KeywordsUrban resilience Flexible urban planning Bottom up urbanism Performative urbanism Resilient management Participatory, inclusive planning
- de Leeuw, E., & Simos, J. (2017). Healthy cities. the theory, policy, and practice of value-based urban planning. Springer Publisher.Google Scholar
- Sallis, J. F. (2016, May 28). Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet, 387(10034), 2207–2217.Google Scholar
- For New York City:Google Scholar
- NYC. (2010). Active design guidelines. Promoting physical activity and health design. http://www1.nyc.gov/site/ddc/about/active-design.page. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- NYC. (2013a). Active design—Shaping the sidewalk experience. In http://www1.nyc.gov/site/ddc/about/active-design.page. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- NYC. (2013b). Active design—Guide for community groups. In https://www1.nyc.gov/…/active-design-community-guide.pdf. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- NYC. (2016). NYC plaza program. Application guidelines 2016. In www.nyc.gov/html/dot/…/2015-plaza-program-guidelines.pdf. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- For Toronto:Google Scholar
- Toronto Public Health. (2011). Healthy Toronto by design. Toronto, Ontario. https://www1.toronto.ca/…toronto/toronto…health/healthy…/hea…. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- Toronto Public Health and Urban Design for Health. (2013). A health and environment-enhanced land use planning tool: Highlights. https://www1.toronto.ca/…health/healthy…/clasp_tool_2012.pdf. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- Toronto Public Health, City of Toronto Planning, City of Toronto Transportation Services and Gladki Planning Associates. (2014). Active city: Designing for health. https://www1.toronto.ca/City%20Of%20Toronto/Toronto%20P…. Accessed May 27, 2017.
- For Medellín:Google Scholar
- http://www.100resilientcities.org/strategies/city/medellin#/-_/. Accessed May 22, 2017.
- For Santiago de Chile:Google Scholar
- http://www.100resilientcities.org/strategies/city/santiago-de-chile#/-_/. Accesssed 22 May 2017.
- http://www.municipalidaddesantiago.cl/. Accessed May 22, 2017.
- For Porto Alegre:Google Scholar
- http://www2.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/portal_pmpa_novo/http://www.100resilientcities.org/#/-_/. Accessed May 22, 2017.