The Need for New Urban Planning for Healthy Cities: Reorienting Urban Planning Towards Healthy Public Policy
The role of local public administrations in favoring dialogue among different players—professionals and workers in public health, urban planners, politicians, and the civil community—is fundamental. All these figures can assume common responsibilities in constructing plans and projects for the city, overcoming the gap between different skills, approaches, and languages. What is certain is that the role of the central (national) government in health policies and city planning cannot be ignored: national approaches, laws, and regulations affect local plans and policies. Some experiments made in recent years in Finland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, etc., on attempts to integrate urban planning and health have felt the effects of some important innovations on the central level [public-health reforms, national recommendations, guidelines on the Health Impact Assessment (HIA), etc.]. Other countries, such as France and Italy, began to address these themes only a few years ago, and on the national level, legislative references are still lacking. Little experimentation has been made in the field, and the experiments carried out have mostly regarded the application of the HIA to individual plans and projects. At any rate, there is growing interest even in these countries.
KeywordsNational and local governance Public-health reforms National recommendations Guidelines on the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) Urban planning and healthy public policy
- Barton, H., Thompson, S., Burgess, S., & Grant, M. (2015). The Routledge handbook of planning for health and well-being. Routledge.Google Scholar
- CABE (2008). Building for Life. Delivering great places to live: 20 questions you need to answer. London: CABE.Google Scholar
- Carmichael, L., Barton, H., Gray, S., & Lease, H. (2013). Health-integrated planning at the local level in England: Impediments and opportunities. Land Use Policy, 31, 259–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.07.008. Accessed June 6, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- City of London. (2015). Local plan. https://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/services/environment-and-planning/planning/planning-policy/local-plan/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed June 6, 2017.
- DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government) (2000). Environmental Impact Assessment: A Guide to Procedures. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120919132719/www.communities.gov.uk/documents/planningandbuilding/pdf/157989.pdf
- DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government) (2010). Code for Sustainable Homes. Technical Guide. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/.../code_for_sustainable_homes_techguide.pdf. Accessed February14, 2018.
- DETR and CABE (2000). By Design-urban design in the planning system: Towards better practice. London: Thomas Telford.Google Scholar
- EHESP/DGS. (2016). Agir pour un urbanisme favorable à la santé: Outil d’aide à l’analyse des Plans locaux d’urbanisme au regard des enjeux de santé. http://www.social-sante.gouv.fr/…/ehesp_dgs_outil_d_aide_analyse_des_plu_enjeux_de_sante.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2017.
- NHS. (2014). Five year forward view. https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/nhs-five-year-forward-view/. Accessed June 6, 2017.
- Progress Consulting S.r.l e Living Prospects Ltd. (2012). La gestione dei sistemi sanitari negli Stati membri dell’UE. Il ruolo degli enti locali e regionali, Unione Europea.Google Scholar
- Regione Emilia Romagna. (2010). Linee Guida per la definizione dei contenuti igienico-sanitari degli strumenti di pianificazione territoriale. Testo disponibile in: http://salute.regione.emilia-romagna.it/prp/doc/atti-di-convegno-e-formazio-ni/-Linee_Guida.pdf/view.
- TCPA, et al. (2015a). Public health in planning-good practice guide. https://www.housinglin.org.uk/_assets/Resources/Housing/OtherOrganisation/TCPA_Public_Health_in_Planning_Good_Practice_Guide.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2017.
- TCPA, et al. (2015b). Public health in planning-good practice guide for London boroughs. http://tcpa.brix.fatbeehive.com/data/files/Health_and_planning/2015_health/Submit_-_TCPA_FINAL_Policy_Review.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2017.
- The Scottish Government (2008). Good Places, Better Health–A New Approach to Better Health and Environment in Scotland. https://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Health/Healthy-Living/Good-Places-BetterHealth. Accessed February 14, 2018.
- The Scottish Government (2014). Scottish Planning Policy. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0045/00453827.pdf. Accessed February 14, 2018.