Mechanisms and Drivers of Soil Salinity in Coastal Bangladesh
Determining soil salinity within the delta is crucial as it is the dominant factor determining crop productivity. There are numerous interacting drivers that influence soil salinity, including climate variability, saline river water inundation, storm surge inundation, depth to groundwater table, groundwater salinity, and shrimp farming (Bagda). For the study area, tidal river salinity appears to influence the soil salinity most, particularly in the south-west of the delta. In northern areas, high groundwater salinity levels, combined with a high groundwater table, are a major contributor to soil salinity. In addition, an increase in salinity of dry season irrigation water is expected to increase salt accumulation in soils, with a possibility of irrigation water salinity exceeding five parts per thousand.
The coastal area of Bangladesh covers about one-fifth of the country and represents more than 30 percent of the country’s cultivable lands (Rasel et al. 2013). Livelihoods in this region are thus largely dependent on agricultural practices; however, dry season agricultural productivity in this region is low compared to the national average (see Chap. 24), which is considered to be one of the major reasons for high incidence of poverty (Lázár et al. 2015). Soil salinity is the dominant factor behind the low crop productivity, which is further compounded by inappropriate and/or faulty water control structures in some areas.
The coverage of dry season irrigated Boro crop within the study area (29.3 percent) is much lower than the national average of around 63 percent. With poor dry season surface water resources, groundwater is the primary source of irrigation water in many areas. However, shallow aquifers in most of the south-west coastal region are affected by different levels of salinity due to seawater intrusion and interaction with saline surface water (Fig. 18.3). This has resulted in the extraction of groundwater from deeper aquifers using tube wells .
18.2 Factors Influencing Soil Salinity in Coastal Bangladesh
There has been a progressive increase in soil salinity in terms of intensity, and affected area over the last four decades with saline areas increasing from 0.83 million hectares in 1973 to about 1.05 million hectares in 2009 (SRDI 2010). There was an increase in affected area by 0.19 million hectares from 1973 to 2000 and a further increase by 0.04 million hectares from 2000 to 2009 (SRDI 2010).
Salinity mechanisms and processes in coastal Bangladesh
Long-term change factors
Irregular rainfall (less rainfall not being able to flush out salts in monsoon; less rainfall forcing more irrigation in dry season)
Accumulation of salts from capillary rise of saline groundwater table
Increased sea levels
Increased river salinity
Increased pumping in upstream freshwater zones
Depth to water table
Capillary rise (water table is < 2 m from surface)
Cyclonic storm surges
Overtopping of polders
Trapped saline water in low-lying floodplain areas with silted up drainage canals
Persistent inundation of tidal plains through embankment breaches
Higher sea levels
Increased frequency of surges
River water salinity
Direct tidal inundation in unprotected areas
Tidal inundation in polders through embankment breach and/or due to faulty water control structures and poor management
Lateral seepage of saline river water through soil/embankment
Reduced river flows due to climate variability
Reduced river flows due to upstream diversion
Reduced river flows due to upstream dams
Salinity of irrigation water
Irrigation with saline river or groundwater
Increased irrigation for leaching
Saline intrusion into groundwater aquifers
Brackish shrimp cultivation
Deliberate introduction of saline water inside polders
Lateral seepage from shrimp ghers to adjacent land
Contamination of shallow groundwater
Seasonal variation in soil salinity is quite distinct; top soil salinity gradually increases from January, reaches a maximum usually in April or May, and then starts to gradually decrease with the onset of monsoon and reaches the seasonal low usually in September or October when salts are sufficiently flushed out by monsoon rainfall. However, at some places greater accumulation of salts occurs due to a combination of the factors listed in Table 18.1.
18.2.1 Groundwater Salinity and Depth to Groundwater Table
Capillary rise causes salt accumulation from shallow groundwater which commonly occurs in irrigated areas in the dry Rabi season (Brammer 2014). Once the water table reaches a critical depth below the ground surface, evaporation of this water can occur via capillary rise, transporting soluble salts with it to the active root zone and top soil surface (Beltrán 1999; Ayers and Westcot 1994; Gupta and Khosla 1996). The critical depth may vary from 1 m in coarse textured soil to a few meters in fine textured soils (Gupta and Khosla 1996).
Murshid (2012) indicated that groundwater pumping from shallow wells less than 200 m from a polder boundary can induce an inflow of brackish water under the polder and into the irrigation well. Additionally, groundwater salinity is anticipated to be negatively impacted by rising sea level and subsidence which would push the seawater interface further inland. This would be exacerbated by an increase in river salinity due to reduction in river flows.
18.2.2 River Water Salinity
There are major river channels along with numerous small rivers and estuarine/tidal creeks that carry saline water from the sea to interior lands in the dry season due to tidal exchange (see Chap. 17). The coastal land elevation is typically between 0.9 and 2.1 m above mean sea level (Iftekhar and Islam 2004; Haque 2006). Tide or surges can rise up to 1.3 m above the general ground level in the dry season and can inundate wide areas (Rasel et al. 2013). Tides and surges of brackish sea water (19–28 parts per thousand (ppt)) can propagate up to 200 km inland in times of reduced river discharge (Mondal et al. 2006; Dasgupta et al. 2014). Inundation can also take place inside the polders through embankment breaches or due to poor management of the outlet gates and via seepage through soils or embankments.
This mechanism is exacerbated by reduced dry reason river flows. Fresh water diversions from the river Ganges has meant river flows into the western part of the south-west coastal zone is substantially reduced in the dry season. This results in high river water salinity in and around Satkhira, Khulna, and Bagerhat districts. In contrast, in the eastern area, fresh water delivery by the Padma and Lower Meghna rivers means that salinity is concentrated nearer the coast (Fig. 18.2).
The fact that river water salinity plays a dominant role in controlling soil salinity has significant implications. A probable future scenario for this region comprises reduced dry season river flows (caused by climatic change and increased damming and diversion upstream) and accelerated relative sea-level rise (caused by global sea-level rise, subsidence and reduced sediment delivery due to river damming), and the soil salinity problem is expected to further intensify and extend over wider areas (see Chap. 17).
18.2.3 Cyclonic Storm Surges
Cyclonic storm surges have been another cause of increase in soil salinity in the surge affected areas in Bangladesh (see Chap. 8). The impacts are frequently prolonged for several years. For example, Cyclone Aila (2007) inundated large areas in Dacope Upazila of Khulna district via overtopping of polders and breaches in the embankments. As rehabilitation of the polder dykes was slow, the tidal floodplain areas were repeatedly inundated by saline tidal water for one to two years, with saline water trapped in low-lying areas with silted up drainage canals. It took two to three monsoons to flush out the accumulated salts before agriculture could be partially restored, which caused prolonged suffering to the local people whose livelihoods are intertwined with agriculture (Kabir et al. 2015).
18.2.4 Irrigation Water Quality and Monsoon Rainfall
18.2.5 Brackish Shrimp Cultivation
Soil salinity is a major constraint of agricultural production and human livelihoods in the coastal region of south-west Bangladesh, but there are multiple relationships between groundwater salinity, surface water salinity, human management (or mismanagement) of water resources, and the resulting accumulation of salts in the soils of the farmlands. When considering future trajectories of environmental change, it will be vital to assess the interactions between the drivers of soil salinity and to be aware of the interactions between surface water and groundwater. Increases in river and groundwater salinity will have significant future implications given their important roles in affecting salt accumulation in soil. River salinity may increase due to accelerated sea-level rise and reduction of dry season river flows. Groundwater is closely linked to the surface hydrology, and it cannot be assumed to be independent of external factors and environmental change. Aquifer water quality can be affected by lateral seawater intrusion due to accelerated sea-level rise, increased river salinity being exchanged with shallow groundwater, cyclonic storm surges, human activities such as groundwater pumping, and deliberate inundation of farmland for brackish aquaculture. Strategic water plans must take note that poor management of surface water and groundwater resource use may result in a long-term degradation of soil quality which will be difficult to reverse.
- Ayers, R.S., and D.W. Westcot. 1994. Water quality for agriculture. FAO irrigation and drainage paper 29. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/T0234E/T0234E00.htm. Accessed 22 May 2017.
- Begum, A., and S.M.N. Alam. 2002. Social and economic impacts of shrimp disease among small-scale, coastal farmers and communities in Bangladesh. Primary aquatic animal health care in rural, small-scale, aquaculture development. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y3610E/y3610E18.htm. Accessed 27 Apr 2017.
- Dasgupta, S., F.A. Kamal, Z.H. Khan, S. Choudhury, and A. Nishat. 2014. River salinity and climate change: Evidence from coastal Bangladesh. Policy working paper series 6817. Washington, DC: The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/522091468209055387/River-salinity-and-climate-change-evidence-from-coastal-Bangladesh. Accessed 11 Apr 2014.
- Gupta, S.K., and B.K. Khosla. 1996. Salinity control in the root zone of irrigated agriculture. Proceedings of the workshop on water logging and soil salinity in irrigated agriculture, March 12–15, New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Haque, S.A. 2006. Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38 (5): 1359–1365.Google Scholar
- Haque, M.A., D.E. Jharna, M.N. Uddin, and M.A. Saleque. 2008. Soil solution electrical conductivity and basic cations composition in the rhizosphere of lowland rice in coastal soils. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 33 (2): 243–250.Google Scholar
- Hossain, S., S.M.N. Alam, C.K. Lin, H. Demaine, Y. Sharif, A. Khan, N.G. Das, and M.A. Rouf. 2004. Integrated management approach for shrimp culture development in the coastal environment of Bangladesh. World Aquaculture, World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. 35–44. https://www.was.org/Magazine/Contents.aspx?Id=8. Accessed 22 May 2017.
- Iftekhar, M.S., and M.R. Islam. 2004. Managing mangroves in Bangladesh: A strategy analysis. Journal of Coastal Conservation 10: 139. https://doi.org/10.1652/1400-0350(2004)010[0139:MMIBAS]2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kabir, H., and I.J. Eva. 2014. Environmental impacts on shrimp aquaculture: The case of Chandipur village at Debhata upazilla of Satkhira district, Bangladesh. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science 40 (1): 107–119.Google Scholar
- Kabir, T., M. Salehin, and G. Kibria. 2015. Delineation of physical factors of cyclone aila and their implications for different vulnerable groups. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Water & Flood Management (ICWFM-2015), organized by IWFM, BUET, Dhaka.Google Scholar
- Karim, Z., S.G. Hussain, and M. Ahmed. 1990. Salinity problems and crop intensification in the coastal regions of Bangladesh. Soils publication no. 33. Dhaka: Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC).Google Scholar
- Lázár, A.N., D. Clarke, H. Adams, A.R. Akanda, S. Szabo, R.J. Nicholls, Z. Matthews, D. Begum, A.F.M. Saleh, M.A. Abedin, A. Payo, P.K. Streatfield, C. Hutton, M.S. Mondal, and A.Z.M. Moslehuddin. 2015. Agricultural livelihoods in coastal Bangladesh under climate and environmental change – A model framework. Environmental Science-Processes and Impacts 17 (6): 1018–1031. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4em00600c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mondal, M.K., T.P. Tuong, S.P. Ritu, M.H.K. Choudhury, A.M. Chasi, P.K. Majumder, M.M. Islam, and S.K. Adhikary. 2006. Coastal water resource use for higher productivity: Participatory research for increasing cropping intensity in Bangladesh. In Environment and livelihoods in tropical coastal zones: Managing agriculture-fishery-aquaculture conflicts, ed. C.T. Hoanh, T.P. Tuong, J.W. Gowing, and B. Hardy. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
- Murshid, S.M. 2012. Impact of sea level rise on agriculture using groundwater in Bangladesh. MSc thesis CoMEM programme, University of Southampton. https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:e484b9b8-e1d1-40b1-99ee-5c7a274ef500/?collection=research. Accessed 22 May 2017.
- Rashid, M., and M.S. Islam. 2007. Adaptation to climate change for sustainable development of Bangladesh agriculture. Bangladesh country paper for the 3rd session of the Technical Committee of Asian and Pacific Center for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM), November 20–21, Beijing.Google Scholar
- Salehin, M., M.S. Mondal, D. Clarke, A. Lazar, M. Chowdhury, and S. Nowreen. 2014. Spatial variation in soil salinity in relation to hydro-climatic factors in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Deltas in Times of Climate Change II, September 24–26, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
- SRDI. 2010. Saline soils of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
<SimplePara><Emphasis Type="Bold">Open Access</Emphasis> This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.</SimplePara> <SimplePara>The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.</SimplePara>