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Nanotechnologies for Neurosciences

  • A. Aloisi
  • D. Pisignano
  • R. RinaldiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the PoliTO Springer Series book series (PTSS)

Abstract

The applications of nanotechnology in the field of neuroscience can be divided into two main strands: (i) applications in the field of basic research and (ii) applications in the clinical field. In the first area we deal with: (a) developing and applying nano-engineered materials to promote adhesion, growth and neuronal differentiation and to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these processes; (b) fabricating nano-systems (for example, “nano-electrodes” implantable) for direct iteration, recording and stimulation of the neurons at the molecular level; (c) applying nano-structures and nanoscale resolution microscopy for advanced and better resolution imaging and diagnostics. In the clinical context, however, the primary goal is to limit or reverse the neurodegenerative processes. In this Lecture Note we present three different approaches at the crossing between basic research and application in clinical field. First, we report on the study of the effect of endogenous dipeptides in neurodegenerative diseases. Then we discuss some recent results in the field of the development of nano-engineered biocompatible materials (“scaffolds”) that might facilitate and accelerate neuronal growth, which represents one of the fundamental objectives of modern tissue engineering. As well, we describe the synthesis of biocompatible micro- and nano-systems that can transport small molecules, drugs, immune system or stem cells, through different routes of administration, a primary goal for the treatment of a wide family of neurological disorders, as well as brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the packaging of stimuli responsive composite systems for cell and cell surrounding environment monitoring, a new road now starting to be strongly pursued.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Microelectronics and MicrosystemsCNRLecceItaly
  2. 2.NEST, Institute of NanoscienceCNRPisaItaly
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  4. 4.ISUFIUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly
  5. 5.Department of Mathematics and Physics “E De Giorgi”University of SalentoLecceItaly

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