Mapping an Entrepreneurial, Innovative and Sustainable Ecosystem Using Social Network Analysis: An Exploratory Approach of Publicly Funded Innovative Project Data
The innovative dynamics of a region largely depends on existing actors and their connectivity, so the resilience of a particular innovation system can be analysed through the study innovation networks. Starting from the Algarve’s case study, this analysis uses methods of social network structural analysis to map actors and centralities regarding cooperation and innovation in regional development. The chapter uses data collected through web content mining, starting from the list of organizations that have benefited from public support to innovation. The mapping of the innovation network in the Algarve is compared to theoretical models of resilient networks with the statistical indicators of hierarchy and homophily. The results facilitate the identification of gatekeepers, clusters of activities and constraints and potentialities to the enhancement of the regional entrepreneurial, innovative and sustainable (EIS) ecosystem. This approach has high potential for replication in other regions. The chapter concludes with policy implications for the EIS ecosystem’s resilience and dynamics.
KeywordsCrisis Innovation Regional policy Network Resilience
Hugo Pinto benefits from the financial support from FCT – Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (SFRH/BPD/84038/2012). The authors are thankful to CCDR Algarve for the availability of data. They also recognize the support of Daniela Mendes, Silvia Dragomir and Jorge André Guerreiro (research internships) in the preparation of material for this study.
- Ács, Z. J., Szerb, L., & Autio, E. (2015). Global entrepreneurship index 2015. Washington, DC: The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute.Google Scholar
- Allan, P., & Bryant, M. (2012). Resilience as a framework for urbanism and recovery. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 6(2), 37–41.Google Scholar
- Boschma, R., & Pinto, H. (2015). Resilient territories. In H. Pinto (Ed.), Resilient territories innovation and creativity for new modes of regional development. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge SP.Google Scholar
- Breiger, R. (2004). The analysis of social networks. In M. Hardy & A. Bryman (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis. India: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Burt, R. (1995). Structural holes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Burt, R. (2000). The network structure of social capital. In B. Staw & R. Sutton (Eds.), Research in organizational behaviour (Vol. 22, pp. 345–423). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Cohen, B., Almirall, E., & Chesbrough, H. (2014). The city as a lab: Open innovation meets the collaborative economy. California Management Review, 59(1), 5–13.Google Scholar
- Crespo, J., Suire, R., & Vicente, J. (2013). Lock-in or lock-out? How structural properties of knowledge networks affect regional resilience? Journal of Economic Geography. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbt006.
- Davoudi, S., Shaw, K., Haider, L. J., Quinlan, A. E., Peterson, G. D., Wilkinson, C., & Mcevoy, D. (2012). Resilience: A bridging concept or a dead end? “Reframing” resilience: Challenges for planning theory and practice interacting traps: Resilience assessment of a pasture management system in northern Afghanistan urban resilience: What does it mean in planning. Planning Theory & Practice, 13(2), 299–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dawley, S., Pike, A., & Tomaney, J. (2010). Towards the resilient region ?: Policy activism and peripheral region, SERC Discussion Papers, SERCDP0053. London: Spatial Economics Research Centre (SERC), London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
- Foster, G., & Shimizu, C. (2013). Entrepreneurial ecosystems around the globe and company growth dynamics, Report Summary for the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2013, World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
- Hamdouch, A., & Depret, M. (2012). Mondialisation et résilience des territoires. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.Google Scholar
- Isenberg, D. J. (2011). “The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economic policy: Principles for cultivating entrepreneurship”, the Babson entrepreneurship ecosystem project. Massachusetts: Babson College.Google Scholar
- Jackson M (2010). An overview of social networks and economic applications, Benhabib J, A Bisin and M Jackson Handbook of Social Economics, New York, Elsevier Science & Technology, 511–585.Google Scholar
- Jackson, B. D. J. (2011). What is an innovation ecosystem? Washington, DC. http://erc-assoc.org/sites/default/files/topics/policy_studies/DJackson_Innovation Ecosystem_03-15-11.pdf
- Karlsson, C. (2011). Clusters, networks and creativity. In D. E. Andersson, Å. E. Andersson, & C. Mellander (Eds.), Handbook of creative cities (pp. 85–114). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Morrison, E. (2013). Universities as anchors for regional innovation ecosystems. http://www.edmorrison.com/universities-as-anchors-for-regionalinnovationecosystems/
- Oh, D. S., Phillips, F., Park, S., & Lee, E. (2016). Innovation ecosystems: A critical examination. Technovation, 54, 2–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2016.02.004.
- Pinto, H., & Pereira, T. S. (2012). Institucionalização da Transferência de Conhecimento: Políticas Públicas e Formação de Actores-Rede na Universidade Portuguesa, Actas do VII Congresso da APS, http://www.aps.pt/vii_congresso/papers/finais/PAP1260_ed.pdf
- Pinto, H., & Pereira, T. S. (2014). Resiliência dos sistemas de inovação face à turbulência económica, Oficinas do CES, 418. http://www.ces.uc.pt/publicacoes/oficina/ficheiros/11157_Oficina_do_CES_418.pdf
- Pinto, H., Guerreiro, J., & Uyarra, E. (2012). Diversidades de Sistemas de Inovação e Implicações nas Políticas Regionais: Comparação das Regiões do Algarve e da Andaluzia. Revista Portuguesa de Estudos Regionais 29, 3–14. http://www.apdr.pt/siterper/numeros/RPER29/29.1.pdf
- Prahalad, C. K. (2005). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing.Google Scholar
- Rivera, M. T., Soderstrom, S. B., & Uzzi, B. (2010). Dynamics of dyads in social networks: Assortative, relational, and proximity mechanisms. Annual Review of Sociology, 36(1), 91–115. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Scott, J. (2000). Social network analysis: A handbook (2nd ed.). Sage Publishers: Great Britain.Google Scholar
- Simatupang, T. M., Schwab, A., & Lantu, D. C. (2015). Building sustainable entrepreneurship ecosystems. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 26(4), 389–398.Google Scholar
- Smith, M., Milic-Frayling, N., Shneiderman, B., Rodrigues, E. M., Leskovec, J., & Dunne, C. (2010). (Version 22.214.171.124) [Software]. NodeXL: A free and open network overview, discovery and exploration add-in for Excel 2007/2010. Disponível em http://www.smrfoundation.org
- Spigel, B. (2015). The relational organization of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4), 1540–6520.Google Scholar
- Uyarra, E., & Flanagan, K. (2012). Reframing regional innovation systems: Evolution, complexity and public policy. In P. Cooke (Ed.), Re-framing regional development (pp. 146–163). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar