Advertisement

Corruption, Gender Equality and Meritocracy

  • Bo Rothstein
Chapter
Part of the Political Corruption and Governance book series (PCG)

Abstract

This chapter makes five claims: (1) Corruption has a detrimental effect on overall human well-being. (2) Most existing programs for combatting corruption have not delivered. (3) Increased gender equality seems to be one important factor behind getting corruption under control. (4) Impartiality in the exercise of public power, not least when it “translates” into meritocracy in the public administration, has a powerful effect both on increasing gender equality and for lowering corruption. (5) As an ideal, impartiality in the exercise of public power turns out to be difficult to reach. It is therefore reasonable to take a “Churchillian” (non-ideal) approach to this. As with democracy, impartiality is not a perfect system, but all other systems for delivering quality of government have turned out to be worse.

References

  1. Abrahams, J. (2015, January 13). Are men natural born criminals? The prison numbers don’t lie. The Telegraph, London.Google Scholar
  2. Ahlerup, P., Baskaran, T., & Bigsten, A. (2016). Government impartiality and sustained growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (mimeo). World Development, 83(1), 54–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjarnegård, E. (2013). Gender, informal institutions and political recruitment: Explaining male dominance in parliamentary representation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boräng, F., Cornell, A., Grimes, M., & Schuster, C. (2017). Cooking the books. Bureaucratic politization and policy knowledge. Governance, 30(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brante, T. (2014). Den professionella logiken hur vetenskap och praktik förenas i det moderna kunskapssamhället. Johanneshov: MTM.Google Scholar
  6. Brouns, M. (2000). The gendered nature of assessment procedures in scientific research funding: The Dutch case. Higher Education in Europe, 25(2), 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, J. R. (2001). Who rules in science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity theory. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bursell, M. (2014). The multiple burdens of foreign-named men-evidence from a field experiment on gendered ethnic hiring discrimination in Sweden. European Sociological Review, 30(3), 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charron, N., & Rothstein, B. (2016, April 7–10). Obstructing opportunity. Corruption and intergenerational social mobility. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  11. Cornell, A. (2014). Why bureaucratic stability matters for the implementation of democratic governance programs. Governance, 27(2), 191–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democracy and its critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dahlström, C., & Lapuente, V. (2017). Organizing the Leviathan: How the relationship between politicians and bureaucrats shapes good government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dahlström, C., Lapuente, V., & Teorell, J. (2011). The merit of meritocratization: Politics, bureaucracy, and the institutional deterrents of corruption. Political Research Quarterly, 65(3), 656–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Attoma, J., Volintiru, C., & Steinmo, S. (2017). Willing to share. Tax compliance and gender in Europe and America. Research and Politics, 4(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  16. de Maria, W. (2010). Why is the president of Malawi angry? Towards an ethnography of corruption. Culture and Organization, 16(2), 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political order and political decay: From the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  18. Garsten, C., Rothstein, B., & Svallfors, S. (2015). Makt utan mandat. De policyprofessionella i svensk politik. Stockholm: Dialogos.Google Scholar
  19. Grimes, M., & Wängnerud, L. (2010). Curbing corruption through social welfare reform? The effects of Mexico’s conditional cash transfer program on good government. American Review of Public Administration, 40(6), 671–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grohs, S., Adam, C., & Knill, C. (2016). Are some citizens more equal than others? Evidence from a field experiment. Public Administration Review, 76(1), 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heidensohn, F., & Silvestri, M. (2012). Gender and crime. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of criminology (pp. 336–369). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Heywood, P. M. (Ed.). (2014). Routledge handbook of political corruption. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Hill, M. J., & Hupe, P. L. (2002). Implementing public policy. Governance in theory and practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Holmberg, S. (2007). The good society index. Gothenburg: The Quality of Government Institute, University of Gothenburg. Working paper 2007:6.Google Scholar
  25. Holmberg, S., & Rothstein, B. (2011). Dying of corruption. Health Economics, Policy and Law, 6(4), 529–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holmberg, S., & Rothstein, B. (2015). Good societies need good leaders on a Leash. In C. Dahlstrom & L. Wängnerud (Eds.), Elites, institutions and the quality of government (pp. 101–124). New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  27. Hough, D. (2017). Analysing corruption: An introduction. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Agenda Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Husu, L. (2000). Gender discrimination in the promised land of gender equality. Higher Education in Europe, 25(2), 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, S. (2009). The quiet coup. The Atlantic Magazine, pp. 16–19, Boston.Google Scholar
  30. Kaplanoglou, G., & Rapanos, V. T. (2013). Tax and trust: The fiscal crisis in Greece. South European Society and Politics, 18(3), 283–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaufmann, D. (2008). Daniel Kaufmann’s farewell lecture: Governance, crisis, and the longer view: Unorthodox reflections on the new reality. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  32. Kittilson, M. C. (2007). Challenging parties, changing parliaments: Women and elected office in contemporary Western Europe. Columbus: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kruttschnitt, C. (2013). Gender and crime. Annual Review of Sociology, 39, 291–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lilla, M. (2016, November 18). The end of identity liberalism. New York Times. Sunday Review, New York.Google Scholar
  35. MacNell, L., Driscoll, A., & Hunt, A. (2015). What’s in a name: Exposing gender bias in student ratings of teaching. Innovations in Higher Education, 40, 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Midtboen, A. H. (2016). Discrimination of the second generation: Evidence from a field experiment in Norway. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 17(1), 253–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mueller, D. C. (1989). Public choice II. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2015). The quest for good governance: How societies develop control of corruption. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. North, D. C., Wallis, J. J., & Weingast, B. R. (2009). Violence and social orders. A conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nunley, J. M., Pugh, A., Romero, N., & Seals, R. A. (2015). Racial discrimination in the labor market for recent college graduates: Evidence from a field experiment. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 15(3), 1093–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Rosenbaum, S. M., Billinger, S., & Stieglitz, N. (2014). Let’s be honest: A review of experimental evidence of honesty and truth-telling. Journal of Economic Psychology, 45(1), 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rothstein, B. (2016). Can corruption explain the success of Donald Trump? In G. Rolnik (Ed.), ProMarket. Chicago: Stigler Center, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago. https://promarket.org/can-corruption-explain-success-donald-trump/.Google Scholar
  45. Rothstein, B. (2017). Solidarity, diversity and the quality of government. In K. G. Banting & W. Kymlicka (Eds.), The strains of committment: The political sources of solidarity in diverse societies (pp. 300–327). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rothstein, B., & Tannenberg, M. (2015). Making development work: The quality of government approach. Stockholm: Swedish Government Expert Group for Aid Studies. Report 2015:17.Google Scholar
  47. Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government: A theory of impartial political institutions. Governance-an International Journal of Policy, Administration and Institutions, 21(2), 165–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rothstein, B., & Torsello, D. (2014). Bribery in pre-industrial societies: Understanding the universalism-particularism puzzle. Journal of Anthropological Research, 70(2), 263–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rothstein, B., & Varraich, A. (2017). Making sense of corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Steffensmeier, D., & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 459–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stensöta, H. O. (2010). The conditions of care: Reframing the debate about public sector ethics. Public Administration Review, 70(2), 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stensöta, H. O. (2015). A public ethics of care. A general public ethics for actual implementation. Ethics and Social Welfare, 9(2), 183–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Swedish Statute Book. (2014). Swedish code of statutes. Stockholm: Riksdagen.Google Scholar
  54. Teorell, J., & Rothstein, B. (2012). Getting to Sweden: Malfeasance and bureaucratic reform in Sweden, 1720–1850. QoG working paper. The Quality of Government Institute, University of Gothenburg.Google Scholar
  55. Therborn, G. (2008). What does the ruling class do when it rules: State apparatuses and state power under feudalism, capitalism and socialism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  56. Tronto, J. C. (2013). Caring democracy : Markets, equality, and justice. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  57. van den Brink, M., Brouns, M., & Waslande, S. (2006). Does excellence have a gender?: A national research study on recruitment and selection procedures for professorial appointments in The Netherlands. Employmee Relations, 28(6), 523–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wängnerud, L. (2012). Why women are less corrupt than men. In S. Holmberg & B. Rothstein (Eds.), Good government: The relevance of political science (pp. 212–232). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  59. Wängnerud, L. (2015). Gender and sorruption. In P. Heywood (Ed.), The handbook of political corruption (pp. 288–298). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Weingast, B. R., & Wittman, D. A. (2006). The Oxford handbook of political economy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Winter, S. (2003). Implementation perspectives: Status and reconsideration. In B. Guy Peters & J. Pierre (Eds.), Handbook of public administration (pp. 212–222). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. World Bank. (2010). Silent and lethal: How quiet corruption undermines Africa’s development efforts. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Rothstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations