Gender and Corruption in Mexico: Building a Theory of Conditioned Causality

  • Marcia Grimes
  • Lena Wängnerud
Chapter
Part of the Political Corruption and Governance book series (PCG)

Abstract

In an effort to further elucidate the mechanisms linking women's representation to lower levels of corruption this study suggests that the impetus for women’s entry into politics is often exogenous to political organizations and therefore, once successful, may disrupt existing “modus operandi” of politics, creating a window of opportunity for subsequent change. If anti-corruption efforts concurrently figure on the policy agenda, then changes both in formal laws and informal norms related to corruption may ensue. The chapter builds on panel data from a biennial household survey in Mexico which allows for a nuanced examination of the link, both (i) whether the presence of corruption adversely affects women’s entry into politics, and (ii) whether women, once elected, affect the prevalence of corruption. The chapter points to concomitant conditions necessary for positive developments especially in contexts in which corruption has been highly prevalent.

References

  1. Alexander, A. C., and Ravlik, M. (2015). Responsiveness to women’s interests as a quality of government mechanism: A global analysis of women’s presence in national legislatures and anti-trafficking enforcement. Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Meeting, September 3–6, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  2. Berliner, D., & Erlich, A. (2015). Competing for transparency. Political competition and institutional reform in Mexican states. American Political Science Review, 109(1), 110–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjarnegård, E. (2013). Gender, informal institutions and political recruitment. Explaining male dominance in political representation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brollo, F., & Troiano, U. (2016). What happens when a woman wins an election? Evidence from close races in Brazil. Journal of Development Economics, 122, 28–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruhn, K. (2003). Whores and lesbians: Political activism, party strategies, and gender quotas in Mexico. Electoral Studies, 22(1), 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dahlerup, D. (Ed.). (2006). Women, quotas and politics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Dollar, D., Fishman, R., & Gatti, R. (2001). Are women really the “fairer” sex? Corruption and women in government. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 46(4), 423–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Esarey, J., & Chirillo, G. (2013). ‘Fairer sex’ or purity myth? Corruption, gender and institutional context. Politics & Gender, 9(4), 361–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Esarey, J. and Schwindt-Bayer, L. (2017). Women’s representation, accountability and corruption in democracies. British Journal of Political Science. Online first.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123416000478
  10. Folke, O. and Rickne, J. (2012). Female representation but male rule? Party competition and the political glass ceiling. IFN working paper no. 923.Google Scholar
  11. Frias, S. M. (2008). Measuring structural gender equality in Mexico: A state level analysis. Social Indicators Research, 88, 215–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goetz, A. M. (2007). Political cleaners: Women as the new anti-corruption force? Development and Change, 38(1), 87–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham, R. (1990). Patronage and politics in nineteenth-century Brazil. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. INEGI. XII Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2000.Google Scholar
  15. Jha, C. K. and Sarangi, S. (2015). Women and corruption: What positions must they hold to make a difference? Working paper. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2434912
  16. Karklins, R. (2005). The system made me do it: Corruption in post-communist societies. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Kostadinova, T., & Mikulska, A. (2017). The puzzling success of populist parties in promoting women’s political representation. Party Politics, 23(4), 400–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Krook, M. L. (2009). Quotas for women in politics: Gender and candidate selection reform worldwide. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morris, S. D. (2005). Political corruption in Mexico: An empirical analysis. Unpublished manuscript, University of South Alabama.Google Scholar
  20. Morris, S. D. (2009). Political corruption in Mexico. The impact of democratization. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Persson, A., Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2012). Why anticorruption reforms fail—Systemic corruption as a collective action problem. Governance, 26(3), 449–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ríos-Cázares, A. and Cejudo, G. M. (2009, April). Accountability regimes in the Mexican states. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  23. Rodríguez, V. E. (2003). Women in contemporary Mexican politics. Austin: The University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  24. Schwindt-Bayer, L. A. (2010). Political power and women’s representation in Latin America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Snyder, R. (2001). Scaling down: The subnational comparative method. Studies in Comparative International Development, 36(1), 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stockemer, D. (2011). Women’s parliamentary representation in Africa: The impact of democracy and corruption on the number of female deputies in national parliaments. Political Studies, 59, 693–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sundström, A., & Wängnerud, L. (2016). Corruption as an obstacle to women’s political representation: Evidence from local councils in 18 European countries. Party Politics, 22(3), 354–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sung, H. E. (2003). Fairer sex or fairer system? Gender and corruption revisited. Social Forces, 82(2), 703–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sung, H. E. (2012). Women in government, public corruption, and liberal democracy: A panel analysis. Crime Law and Social Change, 58, 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Swamy, A., Knack, S., Lee, Y., & Azfar, O. (2001). Gender and corruption. Journal of Development Economics, 64, 25–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Treisman, D. (2007). What have we learned about the causes of corruption from ten years of cross-national empirical research? Annual Review of Political Science, 10, 211–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tripp, A. M., & Kang, A. (2008). The global impact of quotas: On the fast track to increased female legislative representation. Comparative Political Studies, 41(3), 338–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watson, D., & Moreland, A. (2014). Perceptions of corruption and the dynamics of women’s representation. Gender & Politics, 10(3), 392–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcia Grimes
    • 1
  • Lena Wängnerud
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations