• Emil Vespremeanu
  • Mariana Golumbeanu
Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)


The Black Sea is a semi-enclosed sea component of the Mediterranean Sea (European Mediterranean or Euro-African Mediterranean) to whose main basin are linked several straits and seas: Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea, Dardanelles Strait and Aegean Sea. Amongst the well-defined seas of Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Alboran Sea, Azov Sea, Marmara Sea) the Black Sea has the largest area, the greatest depth, the largest volume and the greatest complexity. From a geographical point of view, the Black Sea is located in the Eastern part of South-East Europe, between 40° 55′ and 46° 32′ North latitude and 27° 27′ and 41° 42′ East longitude, in a region in which the ancient stable platforms come into contract with the young mountains generated by the alpine orogeny. The geographical location of Black Sea, as presented above, determines the main climate and biotic processes as well as the main processes of interaction between sea and atmosphere. The climate of the landlocked Black Sea can be characterized generally as continental and subject to pronounced seasonal temperature variations, although climate conditions in some parts of the basin are controlled to a great extent by the shoreline relief. A steppe climate, with cold winters and hot, dry summers, is found in the northwestern part of the basin exposed to the influence of air masses from the north. The southeastern portion of the sea, sheltered by high mountains, experiences a humid subtropical climate, with abundant precipitation, warm winters, and humid summers.


Black Sea Mediterranean Sea Straits Geographical location Climate Temperature 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of GeographyUniversity of BucharestBucharestRomania
  2. 2.The National Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa”ConstantaRomania

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