Human Trafficking and Forced Labor of TCNs in Iraq

  • Celline Cole
  • Resy Vermeltfoort
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)


In order to elucidate the extent to which KBR and its subcontractors are involved in human trafficking and forced labor in Iraq, this chapter elaborates on the situation of Third Country Nationals (TCNs) and on documented cases of TCN trafficking and forced labor by KBR subcontractors and their subcontractors. Firstly, internationally recognized definitions of the crimes of human trafficking and forced labor will be given, and the potential accommodation of these crimes under the concept of international crimes will be elucidated. Subsequently, an in-depth description of the situation of TCNs in Iraq, including typical backgrounds and profiles of TCNs, the recruiting process, as well as usual living and working conditions will be given followed by a presentation of some of the most well-reported cases of TCN trafficking and forced labor in Iraq.


Human trafficking Forced labor Third Country Nationals International crimes Recruitment Living conditions Working conditions 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Celline Cole
    • 1
  • Resy Vermeltfoort
    • 2
  1. 1.HeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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