Inherent Defying Features in Shale Gas Modelling

  • Jebraeel Gholinezhad
  • John Senam Fianu
  • Mohamed Galal Hassan
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Petroleum Geoscience & Engineering book series (BRIEFSPGE)


Accurate simulation and modelling of shale gas reservoirs are deemed crucial for efficient exploitation of these resources. Obtaining realistic results for resource estimation and performance predictions has a significant impact on the economics of the operating companies and all interested parties. Integrating all the unique characteristics of shale gas reservoirs within a single reservoir simulator for accurate predictions of future performance has become an increasingly intricate task. For many years now, various researchers have tried to tackle some of these challenges which include, but not limited to, how the natural fractures are simplified and represented in a simulator, the transport of gas within the matrix and fractures, adsorption and desorption phenomena within the shale gas system and also how the fractures are propagated within the shale formation upon hydraulic fracturing. This chapter provides an overview of the advances made in shale gas modelling and highlights the improved understanding conveyed by various researchers on the main defining characteristics of shale and the way these features of shale are modelled in numerical reservoir simulators.


  1. Adachi J, Siebrits E, Peirce A, Desroches J (2007) Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:739–757. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akkutlu IY, Fathi E (2011) Gas transport in shales with local kerogen heterogeneities. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. SPE 146422, p 13.
  3. Ambrose RJ, Hartman RC, Labs W, Akkutlu IY (2011) Multi-component sorbed-phase considerations for shale gas-in-place calculations. In: SPE production and operations symposium. SPE 141416, pp 1–10.
  4. Azom PN, Javadpour F (2012) Dual continuum Modeling of shale and tight gas reservoirs. Society of petroleum engineers. doi: 10.2118/159584-MS
  5. Bai M, Elsworth D, Roegiers JC (1993) Modeling of naturally fractured reservoirs using deformation dependent flow mechanism. In: International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences & geomechanics abstracts. 30(7):1185–1191. PergamonGoogle Scholar
  6. Barenblatt GI, Zheltov IP, Kochina IN (1960) Basic concepts in the theory of seepage of homogeneous liquids in fissured rocks [strata]. J Appl Math Mech 24:1286–1303CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Berumen S, Tiab D (1996) Effect of pore pressure on conductivity and permeability of fractured rocks. In: Proceedings of SPE western regional meeting, pp 445–460.
  8. Beskok A, Karniadakis GE (1999) A model for flows in channels, pipes, and ducts at micro and nano scales. Microscale Thermophys Eng 3:43–77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Best ME, Katsube TJ (1995) Shale permeability and its significance in hydrocarbon exploration. Lead. Edge 14:165–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Celis V, Silva R, Ramones M, Guerra J, Da Prat G (1994) A New Model for Pressure Transient Analysis in Stress Sensitive Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Soc Pet Eng doi: 10.2118/23668-PA
  11. Chen L, Zhang L, Kang Q, Yao J, Tao W (2015) Nanoscale simulation of shale transport properties using the lattice Boltzmann method: permeability and diffusivity Li Chen. Sci Rep 25(7):134–139Google Scholar
  12. Chao C, Lee J, Spivey JP, Semmelbeck ME (1994) Modeling multilayer gas reservoirs including sorption effects. Society of Petroleum Engineers. doi: 10.2118/29173-MS
  13. Cho Y, Apaydin O, Ozkan E (2012) Pressure-dependent natural-fracture permeability in shale and its effect on shale-gas well production. Soc Pet Eng. SPE 159801, 1–18.
  14. Cipolla C, Lolon E, Erdle J, Rubin B (2010) Reservoir modeling in shale-gas reservoirs. SPE Reserv Eval Eng 13:23–25. Google Scholar
  15. Cipolla CL, Lolon E, Mayerhofer MJ, Warpinski NR (2009a) Fracture Design Considerations in Horizontal Wells Drilled in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. Soc Pet Eng. doi: 10.2118/119366-MS
  16. Cipolla CL, Lolon EP, Erdle JC, Tathed V (2009b) Modeling well performance in shale-gas reservoirs. SPE 125532, pp 19–21.
  17. Civan F (2010) Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media. Transp Porous Media 82:375–384. MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarkson CR, Haghshenas B (2013) Modeling of supercritical fluid adsorption on organic-rich shales and coal. In: SPE unconventional resources conference, pp 1–24.
  19. Daneshy AA (1973) On the design of vertical hydraulic fractures. J Pet Technol 25:83–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Darabi H, Ettehad A, Javadpour F, Sepehrnoori K (2012) Gas flow in ultra-tight shale strata. J Fluid Mech 710:641–658. MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. de Swaan OA (1976) Analytic solutions for determining naturally fractured reservoir properties by well testing.
  22. Dershowitz WS, La Pointe PR, Doe TW et al (2004) Advances in discrete fracture network modeling. In: Proceedings of the US EPA/NGWA fractured rock conference, Portland, pp 882–894Google Scholar
  23. Faulkner DR, Rutter EH (1998) The gas permeability of clay-bearing fault gouge at 20 °C. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 147:147–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Franquet M, Ibrahim M, Wattenbarger R, Maggard J (2004) Effect of pressure-dependent permeability in tight gas reservoirs, transient radial flow. Proc Can Int Pet Conf, 1–10.
  25. Frantz J, Sawyer W, MacDonald R, Williamson J, Johnston D, Waters G (2005) Evaluating barnett shale production performance using an integrated approach. Proc SPE Annu Tech Conf Exhib, 1–18.
  26. Freeman C, Moridis GJ, Michael GE, Blasingame TA (2012) Measurement, modeling, and diagnostics of flowing gas composition changes in shale gas wells. SPE 153391. doi: 10.2118/153391-MS
  27. Gad-el-hak M (1999) The fluid mechanics of microdevices—the freeman scholar lecture. Transactions-American Society of Mechanical Engineers Journal of FLUIDS Engineering, 121:5–33Google Scholar
  28. Geertsma J, De Klerk F (1969) A rapid method of predicting width and extent of hydraulically induced fractures. J Pet Technol 21:1571–1581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geng L, Li G, Zitha P, Tian S, Sheng M, Fan X (2016) A diffusion–viscous flow model for simulating shale gas transport in nano-pores. Fuel 181:887–894. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guo C, Xu J, Wu K, Wei M, Liu S (2015) Study on gas flow through nano pores of shale gas reservoirs. Fuel 143:107–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gutierrez M, Øino LE, Nygård R (2000) Stress-dependent permeability of a de-mineralised fracture in shale. Mar Pet Geol 17:895–907. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herbert AW (1996) Modelling approaches for discrete fracture network flow analysis. Dev Geotech Eng 79:213–229Google Scholar
  33. Howard G, Fast CR (1957) Optimum fluid characteristics for fracture extension? In: Proceedings of American Petroleum Institute, pp 261–270. API-57-261Google Scholar
  34. Javadpour F (2009) Nanopores and apparent permeability of gas flow in mudrocks (Shales and Siltstone). Soc Pet Eng J 48:1–6. Google Scholar
  35. Javadpour F, Fisher D, Unsworth M (2007) Nanoscale gas flow in shale gas sediments. J Can Pet Technol 46:55–61. Google Scholar
  36. Kazemi H (1969) Pressure transient analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs with uniform fracture distribution.
  37. Kelly S, El-Sobky H, Torres-Verdín C, Balhoff MT (2015) Assessing the utility of FIB-SEM images for shale digital rock physics. Adv Water Resour, 1–15.
  38. Klinkenberg LJ (1941) The permeability of porous media to liquids and gases. Drilling and production practice, pp 200–213. American Petroleum InstituteGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuila U, Prasad M (2013) Specific surface area and pore-size distribution in clays and shales. Geophys Prospect 61:341–362. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Leahy-dios A, Das M, Agarwal A, Kaminsky RD, Upstream E (2011) Modeling of transport phenomena and multicomponent sorption for shale gas and coalbed methane in an unstructured grid simulator adsorbed gas, scf/tonne. SPE Annu, 1–9.
  41. Lee KS, Kim TH (2015) Integrative understanding of shale gas reservoirs, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin.
  42. Mack MG, Warpinski NR (2000) Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing. Reservoir stimulation. MJ Economides and KG NolteGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin JP, Hill DG, Lombardi TE, Nyahay R (2010) A Primer on New York’s gas shales, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  44. McCabe WJ, Barry BJ, Manning MR (1983) Radioactive tracers in geothermal underground water flow studies. Geothermics 12:83–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McClure M, Horne RN (2013) Discrete fracture network modeling of hydraulic stimulation: coupling flow and geomechanics. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mehmani A, Prodanović M, Javadpour F (2013) Multiscale, multiphysics network modeling of shale matrix gas flows. Transp Porous Media 99:377–390. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mengal SA, Wattenbarger RA (2011) Accounting for adsorbed gas in shale gas reservoirs. SPE Conf, 25–28.
  48. Minkoff SE, Stone CM, Bryant S, Peszynska M, Wheeler MF (2003) Coupled fluid flow and geomechanical deformation modeling. J Petrol Sci Eng. 38(1):37–56Google Scholar
  49. Moghaddam R, Jamiolahmady M (2016) Slip flow in porous media. Fuel 173:298–310. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Myong RS (2003) Gaseous slip models based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Phys Fluids 16:104–117. CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  51. Najurieta HL (1980) A theory for pressure transient analysis in naturally fractured reservoirs.
  52. Naraghi ME, Javadpour F (2015) A stochastic permeability model for the shale-gas systems. Int J Coal Geol 140:111–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Navarro VOG (2012) Closure of natural fractures caused by increased effective stress, a case study: Reservoir Robore III, Bulo Bulo Field, Bolivia. Soc Pet Eng. SPE 153609, 1–11.
  54. Nordgren RRP (1972) Propagation of a vertical hydraulic fracture. Soc Pet Eng J 12:306–314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Odeh AS (1965) Unsteady-state behavior of naturally fractured reservoirs.
  56. Pedrosa OA (1986) Pressure transient response in stress-sensitive formations. SPE 15115.
  57. Perkins TK, Kern LR (1961) Widths of hydraulic fractures. J Pet Technol 13:937–949. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Raghavan R, Chin LY (2002) Productivity changes in reservoirs with stress-dependent permeability. Soc Pet Eng. SPE 88870, 308–315.
  59. Rahman MM, Rahman MK (2010) A review of hydraulic fracture models and development of an improved pseudo-3D model for stimulating tight oil/gas sand. Energy Sources Part A Recover Util Environ Eff 32:1416–1436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rathakrishnan E (2013) Gas dynamics. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  61. Rezaveisi M, Javadpour F, Sepehrnoori K (2014) Modeling chromatographic separation of produced gas in shale wells. Int J Coal Geol 121:110–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ruthven DM (1984) Principles of adsorption and adsorption processes. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  63. Rutqvist J, Wu YS, Tsang CF, Bodvarsson G (2002) A modeling approach for analysis of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation in fractured porous rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 39(4):429–442Google Scholar
  64. Sakhaee-pour A, Bryant SL (2011) Gas Permeability of Shale. Soc Pet Eng. doi: 10.2118/146944-MS
  65. Serra K, Reynolds AC, Raghavan R (1983) New pressure transient analysis methods for naturally fractured reservoirs.
  66. Settari A, Cleary MP (1986) Development and testing of a pseudo-three-dimensional model of hydraulic fracture geometry. SPE Prod Eng 1:449–466. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shabro V, Torres-Verdín C, Javadpour F, Sepehrnoori K (2012) Finite-difference approximation for fluid-flow simulation and calculation of permeability in porous media. Transp Porous Media 94:775–793. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Singh H, Javadpour F (2015) Langmuir slip-Langmuir sorption permeability model of shale. Fuel 164:28–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Singh H, Javadpour F (2016) Langmuir slip-Langmuir sorption permeability model of shale. Fuel, 164:28–37Google Scholar
  70. Tao Q, Ehlig-Economides CA, Ghassemi A (2009) Investigation of stress-dependent fracture permeability in naturally fractured reservoirs using a fully coupled poroelastic displacement discontinuity model. Proc SPE Annu Tech Conf Exhib 5:2996–3003. Google Scholar
  71. Vairogs J, Hearn CL, Dareing DW, Rhoades VW (1971) Effect of rock stress on gas production from low-permeability reservoirs. Soc Pet Eng 5:1161–1167. Google Scholar
  72. Walton I, Mclennan J (2013) The role of natural fractures in shale gas production.
  73. Warren JEE, Root PJJ (1963) The behavior of naturally fractured reservoirs. Soc Pet Eng J 3:245–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weng X (2015) Modeling of complex hydraulic fractures in naturally fractured formation. J Unconv Oil Gas Resour 9:114–135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wheaton R (2017) Dependence of shale permeability on pressure. Society of petroleum engineers. doi: 10.2118/183629-PA
  76. Wu Y-S, Pruess K (2000) Integral solutions for transient fluid flow through a porous medium with pressure-dependent permeability. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 37:51–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yew CH, Weng X, Yew CH, Weng X (2015) Fracturing of a wellbore and 2D fracture models (Chapter 1). In: Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing, pp 1–22.
  78. Yu W, Sepehrnoori K, Patzek TW (2014) Evaluation of gas adsorption in marcellus shale. Society of petroleum engineers. pp 27–29. doi: 10.2118/170801-MS
  79. Yu W, Sepehrnoori K, Patzek TW (2015) Modeling gas adsorption in marcellus shale with Langmuir and BET isotherms. SPE J.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jebraeel Gholinezhad
    • 1
  • John Senam Fianu
    • 1
  • Mohamed Galal Hassan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EngineeringUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

Personalised recommendations