• F. Wang
  • K. Kovler
  • J. L. Provis
  • A. Buchwald
  • M. Cyr
  • C. Patapy
  • S. Kamali-Bernard
  • L. Courard
  • K. Sideris
Part of the RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports book series (RILEM State Art Reports, volume 25)


Metakaolin (MK) is known to be a highly pozzolanic material that can be used in concrete. MK is usually produced by heating kaolin-containing clays, within the temperature range of about 600–900 ℃. This chapter summarizes the utilization of metakaolin in relevant worldwide standards, mainly in Europe and North America. The health, safety and environmental sustainability concerns on using metakaolin as a supplementary cementitious material are also addressed in this chapter. It is reported that MK incorporation has benefits on both early-age and long-term properties. On the other hand, this chapter also reports that the results of heat of hydration and rate of reaction in metakaolin-blended concrete are controversial and need further investigation. Overall, the optimum level of cement replacement by MK is around 10–20%, which provides concrete the maximum strength. Metakaolin appears to have an excellent potential as a supplementary cementitious material in structures made of high-performance concrete, because it controls deleterious expansion due to alkali-silica reaction in concrete (depending on the nature of the aggregate), and reduces the ingress of chloride by improving the microstructure and chloride binding behavior.


Metakaolin High-performance concrete Supplementary cementitious material Properties Sustainability 


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Wang
    • 1
  • K. Kovler
    • 1
  • J. L. Provis
    • 2
  • A. Buchwald
    • 3
  • M. Cyr
    • 4
  • C. Patapy
    • 4
  • S. Kamali-Bernard
    • 5
  • L. Courard
    • 6
  • K. Sideris
    • 7
  1. 1.Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringTechnion—Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield BuildingSheffieldUK
  3. 3.ASCEM B.V.RhedenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Université de Toulouse; UPS, INSA; LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité Des Constructions)Toulouse Cedex 4France
  5. 5.UEB, INSA-Rennes, LGCGMRennes Cedex 7France
  6. 6.GeMMe Research Group, ArGEnCo DepartmentUniversity of LiegeLiegeBelgium
  7. 7.Department of Civil EngineeringDemocritus University of ThraceXanthiGreece

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