Advertisement

Fly Ash

  • Kosmas Sideris
  • Harald Justnes
  • Marios Soutsos
  • Tongbo Sui
Chapter
Part of the RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports book series (RILEM State Art Reports, volume 25)

Abstract

Fly ash is an industrial by-product deriving from electricity generating plants. It is the by-product of burning coal or lignite. Fly ash is one of the first artificial admixtures used for the production of concrete since the first decades of the 20th century. Its chemical and mineralogical composition mainly depends on the relevant properties of the raw material used as well as on the type of furnace and the way it is collected. Fly ash may have beneficial effects on both the fresh and hardened properties of concrete mixtures. This chapter provides an extensive report on the use of fly ash in concrete. Reference is made to the regulatory framework governing the application of fly ash, mainly in Europe and America, to factors affecting the quality of the product and to the effects of different fly ashes on fresh and hardened characteristics of concrete.

Keywords

Fly ash Pozzolans Supplementary cementitious materials Sustainability Transport properties 

References

  1. Abdun Nur EA (1961) Fly Ash in concrete evaluation. Highways Res Bull 281Google Scholar
  2. ACI committee 226 (1987) 3R-87: Fly ash in concrete. ACI Mater J 11:381–409Google Scholar
  3. Al-Amoudi OSB (1999) Mechanisms of sulfate attack in plain and blended cements: a review. In: Proceedings of the conference extending performance of concrete structures, international congress “creating with concrete”, Dundee, pp 247–260Google Scholar
  4. Alonso JL, Wesche K (1992) Characterization of Fly Ash. Fly ash in concrete, properties and performance, RILEM Report, E & FN Spon, pp 3–23(1992)Google Scholar
  5. ASTM C 618 (2015) Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM C1012-95 (1995) Length Change of hydraulic-cement mortars exposed to a sulfate solution. American Society for Testing and Materials, vol 04.01, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. ASTM C150-95 (2015) Standard specification for Portland cement. American Society for Testing and Materials, vol 04.01, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun H, Gebauer J (1983) Moeglichkeiten und grenzen der verwendung von flugaschen im zement. Zement-Kalkgips (ZKG) 36(5):254–258Google Scholar
  9. Brown JH (1982) The strength and workability of concrete with PFA substitution. In: Proceedings International Symposium on the Use of PFA in Concrete, University of Leeds, England, pp 151–161Google Scholar
  10. Camoes A, Agiar B, Jalali S (2003) Durability of low cost high performance fly ash concrete. In: The 2003 International Ash Utilisation Symposium, Center for Applied Energy Research, Kentucky, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Carette GG, Malhotra VM (1984) Characterization of Canadian fly ashes and their performance in concrete. Division report MRP/MSL 84–137, CANMET, Energy, Mines and Resources, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  12. Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) (1967) PFA data book. LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Chappex T, Scrivener KL (2012a) Alkali fixation of C-S–H in blended cement pastes and its relation to alkali silica reaction. Cem Conc Res 42:1049–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chappex T, Scrivener KL (2012b) The influence of aluminum on the dissolution of amorphous silica and its relation to alkali silica reaction. Cem Conc Res 42:1645–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chappex T, Scrivener KL (2013) The effect of aluminum in solution on the dissolution of amorphous silica and its relation to cementitious systems. J Am Ceram Soc 96:592–597Google Scholar
  16. Chindaprasirt P, Chotithanorm C, Cao HT, Sirivivatnanon V (2007) Influence of fly ash fineness on the chloride penetration of concrete. Construct Build Mater 21(2):356–361Google Scholar
  17. Costa U, Massazza F (1983) Some properties of pozzolanic cements containing fly ashes. In: Proceedings of the first CANMET/ACI international conference on the use of fly ash, silica fume, slag and other mineral by-products in concrete, ACI SP-79, pp 235–254Google Scholar
  18. Davies RE (1954) Pozzolanic materials—with special reference to their use in concrete pipe. Technical memo, American Concrete Pipe AssociationGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis RE, Carlson RW, Kelly JW, Davis HE (1937) Properties of cements and concretes containing fly ash. J Am Concr Inst 33:577–612Google Scholar
  20. Demirboğa R, Türkmen I, Karakoc MB (2007) Thermo-mechanical properties of concrete containing high-volume mineral admixtures. Build Environ 42(1):349–354Google Scholar
  21. Diamond S (1985) Selection and use of fly ash for high way concrete. Joint Highway Research Project, Purdue University, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunstan ER Jr (1980) A possible method for identifying fly ashes that will improve sulfate resistance. Cem Concr Aggregates 2(1):20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunstan ER (1987) Sulfate resistance of fly ash concretes: the R-value. In: Proceedings of the katharine and bryant mather international conference on concrete durability, ACI SP-100, pp 2027–2040Google Scholar
  24. Efes Y (1980) Untersuchungen ueber einfluesse auf die spezifische oberflaeche nach blaine von steinkohlenflugaschen und ueber die auswirkungen des blaine-wertes auf andere eigenschaften. Tizfachberichte 104(1):20–29Google Scholar
  25. Elsageer M (2011) Early age strength development of fly ash mixes as affected by temperature (Ph.D. thesis). The University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  26. EN 206-13 (2013) European Committee for Standardization, European Standard EN 206: Concrete—specification, performance, production and conformity. CEN, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  27. Erdogan TY, Tokyay M, Ramyar K (1992) Investigations on the sulfate resistance of high-lime fly ash incorporating PC-FA mortras. In: Proceedings of the 4th CANMET/ACI international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete, ACI SP-132, Istanbul, pp 271–280Google Scholar
  28. Erdoğdu K, Türker P (1998) Effects of fly ash particle size on strength of Portland cement fly ash mortars. Cem Concr Res 28(9):1217–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. EUROGYPSUM-ECOBA-VGB (2005) FGD Gypsum—Quality criteria and analysis methodsGoogle Scholar
  30. Fay KFV, Pierce JS (1989) Sulfate resistance of concretes with various fly ashes. ASTM standardization news, pp 32–37Google Scholar
  31. Fib Bulletin 34 (2006) Model code for service life design, fib (ISBN 2-88394- 074-6)Google Scholar
  32. Gebler SH, Klieger P (1986) Effect of fly ash on physical properties of concrete. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete, ACI SP-91, vol 1, pp 1–50Google Scholar
  33. Gomes S, François M, Abdelmoula M, Refait Ph, Pellissier C, Evrard O (1999) Characterization of magnetite in silico-aluminous fly ash by SEM, TEM, XRD, magnetic susceptibility, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Cem Concr Res 29(11):1705–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haque MN, Langan BW, Ward MA (1988) High fly ash concretes. ACI Mater J 8(1):54–60Google Scholar
  35. Hatzitheodorou A (2007) In-situ strength development of concretes with supplementary cementitious materials (Ph.D. thesis). The University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  36. Hellenic Technical Specification (2007) Greek gly ashes. J Gov Hellenic Democracy Bull 2(551) (in Greek)Google Scholar
  37. Helmuth R (1987) Fly ash in cement and concrete, PCA, Skokie, Ill., p 203Google Scholar
  38. Idorn GM, Henriksen KR (1984) State of the art for fly ash uses in concrete. Cem Concr Res 14(4):463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jaturapitakkul C, Kiattikomol K, Sata V, Leekeeratikul T (2004) Use of ground coarse fly ash as a replacement of condensed silica fume in producing high-strength concrete. Cem Concr Res 34(4):549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jiang LH, Malhotra VM (2000) Reduction in water demand of non-air-entrained concrete incorporating large volumes of fly ash. Cem Concr Res 30(11):1785–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Joshi RC (1979) Sources of pozzolanic activity in fly ashes—a critical review. In: Proceedings of the 5th international fly ash utilization symposium, Atlanta, GA, USA, pp 610–623Google Scholar
  42. Joshi RC (1987) Effect of a sub-bituminous fly ash and its properties on sulfate resistance of sand cement mortars. J Durab Build Mater 4:271–286Google Scholar
  43. Joshi RC, Lohtia RP (1993) Effects of premature freezing temperatures on compressive strength, elasticity and microstructure of high volume fly ash concrete. In: Proceedings of third canadian symposium on cement and concrete, Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  44. Joshi RC, Lohtia RP, Salam MA (1993) High strength concrete with high volumes of Canadian sub-bituminous coal ash. In: Proceedings of the third international symposium on utilization of high strength concrete, Lillachammer, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  45. Kasai Y, Matsui I, Fukushima U, Kamohara H (1983) Air permeability of blended cement mortars. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on the use of fly ash, silica fume, slag and other mineral by-products in concrete. ACI SP 29, pp 435–451Google Scholar
  46. Khan MI (2010) Rheological characteristics of HPC containing composite cementitious materials. Concrete Technology—Journal of the Concrete Plant International, No 02/10, Germany, pp 78–84Google Scholar
  47. Klieger P, Perenchio WF (1972) Laboratory studies of blended cement: Portland- pozzolan cements. Research and Development Bulletin RD013, Portland cement Association, USAGoogle Scholar
  48. Knutsson A (2010) Freeze/Thaw durability of concrete with fly ash. Master of Science Thesis in the Master’s Programme Structural engineering and Building Performance Design, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Division of Building Technology, Building Materials, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, Master’s Thesis 2010:154Google Scholar
  49. Korac V, Ukraincik V (1983) Studies into the use of fly ash in concrete for water dam structures. ACI Special Publication SP 79:173–185Google Scholar
  50. Lane RO, Best JF (1982) Properties and use of fly ash in Portland cement concrete. Concr Int 4(7):81–92Google Scholar
  51. Majko RM, Pistilli MF (1984) Optimizing the amount of Class C fly ash in concrete mixtures. Cem Concr Aggregates CCAGDP 6(2):105–119Google Scholar
  52. Malhotra VM, Carette GG, Bremmer TW (1982) Durability of concrete containing granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash or both in Marine environment. CANMET, EMR, Canada Report 80-18EGoogle Scholar
  53. Malhotra VM, Caratte GG, Bilodeau A, Sivasundram V (1990) Some aspects of durability of high volume ASTM class F (Low-calcium) fly ash concrete. Mineral sciences laboratories [Division report MSL-90–20 (OP & J)]Google Scholar
  54. Manmohan D, Mehta PK (1981) Influence of pozzolanic, slag, and chemical admixtures on pore size distribution and permeability of hardened cement pastes. Cem Concr Aggregates 3(1):63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCarthy GJ, Johansen DM, Steinwand SJ (1988) X-ray diffraction analysis of fly ash. In: Barrett CS et al (eds) Advances in X-Ray analysis, vol 31. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. McCarthy GJ, Berry EE, Majko RM (1998) Fly ash and coal conversion by-products: characterization, utilization, and disposal IV. In: Materials research society symposium proceedings. (ISBN 978-0931837814)Google Scholar
  57. Mehta PK (1981) Studies on blended Portland cements containing Santorin earth. Cem Concr Res 11(3):507–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mehta PK (1986a) Effect of fly ash composition on sulfate resistance of cements. ACI Mat J 83(6):994–1000Google Scholar
  59. Mehta PK (1986b) Concrete: structure, properties and materials. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  60. Mehta PK (1988) Standard specifications for mineral admixtures—an overview. ACI SP 91:637–658Google Scholar
  61. Mehta PK (1994) In: Khayat IH, Aitcin PC (eds) Symposium on durability of concrete, Nice, France pp 99–118Google Scholar
  62. Monzo J, Paya J, Peris-Mora E, Borrachero MV (1995) Mechanical treatment of fly ashes: strength development and workability of mortars containing ground fly ashes. In: Proceedings of 5th CANMET/ACI international conference on the use of fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete, pp 339–354Google Scholar
  63. Nagataki S, Ohga H (1992) Combined effect of carbonation and chloride on corrosion of reinforcement in fly ash concrete. In: Proceedings 4th international conference on the use of fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete, Istanbul, Turkey, pp 227–244Google Scholar
  64. Naik TR, Ramme BR, Kraus RN, Siddique R (2003) Long-term performance of high-volume fly ash concrete pavements. ACI Mater J 100(2):150–155Google Scholar
  65. Neville AM (1995) Properties of concrete, 4th edn. Pearson, Harlow, UKGoogle Scholar
  66. Ng S, Justnes H (2016) Influence of plasticizers on the rheology and early heat of hydration of blended cements with high content of fly ash. Cem Concr Comp 65:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Owens PL (1979) Fly ash and its usage in concrete. Concr Soc J 13(7):21–26Google Scholar
  68. Papadakis VG (1999) Effect of fly ash on Portland cement systems. Part I: Low calcium fly ash. Cem Conc Res 29:1727–1739Google Scholar
  69. Papadakis VG (2000a) Effect of supplementary cementing materials on concrete resistance against carbonation and chloride ingress. Cem Conc Res 30(1):291–299MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Papadakis VG (2000b) Effect of fly ash on Portland cement systems. Part II: High calcium fly ash. Cem Conc Res 30:1647–1654Google Scholar
  71. Papadakis VG, Tsimas S (2002) Supplementary cementing materials in concrete: Part I: efficiency and design. Cem Concr Res 32(10):525–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Papadakis VG, Fardis MN, Vayenas CG (1992) Hydration and carbonation of pozzolanic cements. ACI Mat J 89(2):119–130Google Scholar
  73. Papayianni J (1996) Standards for Using fly ashes in concrete production and use of greek fly ashes. In: Proceedings of the 12th hellenic congress on concrete, Lemesos, Cyprus, pp 146–155 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  74. Papayianni I (2010a) Use of calcareous ash in civil engineering. In: Proceedings of the international conference eurocoalash 2010, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  75. Papayianni I (2010b) Use of calcareous ash in civil engineering. In: Proceedings of Eurocoalash 2010, pp 58–72Google Scholar
  76. Papayianni-Papadopoulou J (1981) Research for the possibility of using Ptolemaida’s fly ash for concrete production. Ph.D. Dissertation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece (in Greek)Google Scholar
  77. Perenchio WF, Klieger P (1976) Further laboratory studies of Portland-pozzolan cements. Portland Cement Research and Development Bulletin RD041.01TGoogle Scholar
  78. Poole JL, Rinding K, Juenger M, Folliard K, Schindler A (2010) Effect of supplementary cementitious materials on apparent activation energy. J ASTM Int 7(9):1–16Google Scholar
  79. Ramakrishan V, Coyle WV, Brown J, Tluskus A, Benkataramanyam P (1981) Performance characteristics of concrete containing fly ash. In: Diamond S (ed) Proceedings symposium on fly ash incorporation in hydrated cement systems, Materials Research Society, Boston, pp 233–243Google Scholar
  80. Ravina D (1980) Optimized determination of PFA fineness with reference to pozzolanic activity. Cem Concr Res 10(4):573–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rodway LE, Fedriko WM (1989) Superplasticized high volume fly ash structural concrete. ACI SP 114(1):98–112Google Scholar
  82. Roy DM (1987) Hydration of blended cements containing slag, fly ash, or silica fume. In: Proceedings of meeting institute of concrete technology, Coventry, UK, pp 29–39Google Scholar
  83. Schiepl P, Hardtle R (1994) Relationship between durability and fore structure properties of concretes containing fly ash. In: Khayat IH, Aitcin PC (eds) P.K. Mehta symposium on durability of concrete, Nice, France, pp 99–118Google Scholar
  84. Schmidt M (1992) Cement with inter-ground additives—capabilities and environmental relief. Part 2. Zement-Kalk GipsGoogle Scholar
  85. Shehata MH, Thomas MDA (2000) The effect of fly ash composition on the expansion of concrete due to alkali silica reaction. Cem Conc Res 1063–1072Google Scholar
  86. Shehata MH, Thomas MDA (2002) Use of ternary blends containing silica fume and fly ash to suppress expansion due to alkali-silica reaction in concrete. Cem Conc Res 341–349Google Scholar
  87. Siddique R (2003) Effect of fine aggregate replacement with class F fly ash on the mechanical properties of concrete. Cem Concr Res 33(4):539–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Siddique R, Khan MI (2011) Supplementary cementing materials. Springer (ISBN 978-3-642-17865-8)Google Scholar
  89. Sideris KK (1996) Influence of natural pozzolanas and fly ash on the compressive strength and porosity of cement mortars and concretes. Ph.D. dissertation, Xanthi (in Greek)Google Scholar
  90. Sideris KK, Savva A (2001) Resistance of fly ash and natural pozzolans blended cement mortars and concrete to carbonation, sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration. In: Proceedings of the seventh CANMET/ACI international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete, Madras, India, CANMET/ACI SP 119 Volume II, pp 275–293Google Scholar
  91. Sideris K, Sideris KK (1997) The cement hydration equation and its application to several hydration criteria according to the literature. In: Justnes H (ed) Proceedings of the 10th international congress on the chemistry of cement, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2ii061Google Scholar
  92. Sideris K, Sideris KK (2003) Ten years cement hydration equation and its application to chemistry and physics of cement paste, mortar and concrete, Xanthi, p 320 (ISBN 960-343-722-0)Google Scholar
  93. Sideris ΚK, Savva AE, Baltzopoulou KD, Economou CM, Sideris K (1997) Influence of silica and limestone aggregates on the final compressive strength of blended cement concretes prepared with the use of three different pozzolanas. In: Justnes H (ed) Proceedings of the 10th international congress on the chemistry of cement, Göthenburg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  94. Sideris KK, Savva A, Papayianni J (2006) Sulfate attack and carbonation of plain and blended cements. Cem Concr Comp 28(1):47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sivasundram V, Carette GG, Malhotra VM (1990) Selected properties of high volume fly ash concretes. ACI Concrete International, pp 47–50Google Scholar
  96. Soutsos M, Hatzitheodorou A, Kwasny J, Kanavaris F (2016) Effect of in situ temperature on the early age strength development of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. Constr Build Mat 103:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stamatakis M, Fragulis D, Papageorgiou A (1997) Quality of Greek fly ash and its influence on blended cement production. In: Proceedings of the conference use of fly ash on construction Greece, pp 213–228, 3–4 October 1997 (in Greek)Google Scholar
  98. Tattersall GH, Banfill PFG (1983) The rheology of fresh concrete. Pitman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Taylor HFW (1997) Cement chemistry, 2nd edn. Thomas Telford, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thomas MDA (1999) Laboratory and field studies of salt scaling in fly ash concrete. In: Setzer MJ, Auberg R (eds) Proceedings of the RILEM international workshop on frost resistance of concrete with and without deicing chemicals, Essen, Germany, Sept 1997Google Scholar
  101. Thomas MDA (2011) The effect of supplementary cementing materials on alkali silica reaction: a review. Cem Concr Res 41:1224–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thomas M (2013) Supplementary cementing materials in concrete. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, pp 190 (ISBN 978-1-4665-7298-0)Google Scholar
  103. Thomas MDA, Bamforth PB (1999) Modelling chloride diffusion in concrete: effect of fly ash and slag. Cem Concr Res 29(2):487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tikalsky PJ, Carrasquillo RL, Snow PG (1990) Sulfate resistance of concrete containing fly ash. In: Proceedings of the G. M. Idorn international symposium on durability of concrete, ACI SP-131, pp 255–265Google Scholar
  105. Virtanen J (1983) Freeze–thaw resistance of concrete containing blast furnace slag, fly ash or condensed silica fume. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on the use of flyash, silica fume, slag and other mineral by-products, ACI SP-79, pp 923–942Google Scholar
  106. Wesche K (1991) Fly Ash in Concrete: Properties and Performance. E & FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. Whiting D (1989) Strength and durability of residential concretes containing fly ash, Research and Development Bulletin RD099, Portland Cement Association, http://www.cement.org/pdf_files/RD099.pdf, pp 42
  108. World Coal Institute (2003) UK’s energy future?, Ecoal, The News Letter of the World Coal Institute, vol 45, 3, (2003)Google Scholar
  109. www.ecoba.com/ecobaccpprod.html (2007) Production and utilization of CCP’s in Europe [EU 15]
  110. Yuan RL, Cook JE (1983) Study of class C fly ash in concrete. In: Proceeding of the 1st international conference on the use of fly ash, silica fume, slag, and other mineral byproducts in concrete, ACI SP-79 307–319Google Scholar
  111. Yuan RZ, Jin SX, Qian JC (1982) Effects of fly ash on rheology of fresh cement paste. In: Proceedings materials and research society symposium, pp 182–191Google Scholar
  112. Chindaprasirt, P., Chotithanorm, C., Cao, H.T., Sirivivatnanon, V.: Influence of fly ash fineness on the chloride penetration of concrete. Construct. Build. Mater. 21(2), 356–361 (2007).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kosmas Sideris
    • 1
  • Harald Justnes
    • 2
  • Marios Soutsos
    • 3
  • Tongbo Sui
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Building Materials, Department of Civil EngineeringDemocritus University of ThraceXanthiGreece
  2. 2.SINTEF Building and InfrastructureTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.School of Natural and Built EnvironmentQueen’s UniversityBelfastUK
  4. 4.Sinoma Research Institute, Sinoma Int’l, CNBMChaoyang District, BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations