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Code-Division Multiple Access

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Abstract

Multiple access is the ability of many users to communicate with each other while sharing a common transmission medium. Wireless multiple-access communications are facilitated if the transmitted signals are orthogonal or separable in some sense. Signals may be separated in time (time-division multiple access or TDMA), frequency (frequency-division multiple access or FDMA), or code (code-division multiple access or CDMA). This chapter presents the general characteristics of direct-sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) and frequency-hopping CDMA (FH-CDMA) systems. The use of spread-spectrum modulation with CDMA allows the simultaneous transmission of signals from multiple users in the same frequency band. All signals use the entire allocated spectrum, but the spreading sequences or frequency-hopping patterns differ. Information theory indicates that in an isolated cell, CDMA systems achieve the same spectral efficiency as TDMA or FDMA systems only if optimal multiuser detection is used. However, even with single-user detection, CDMA has advantages for mobile communication networks because it eliminates the need for frequency and time-slot coordination, allows carrier-frequency reuse in adjacent cells, imposes no sharp upper bound on the number of users, and provides resistance to interference and interception. In this chapter, the vast potential and practical difficulties of spread-spectrum multiuser detectors, such as optimal, decorrelating, minimum mean-square error, or adaptive detectors, are described and assessed. The tradeoffs and design issues of direct-sequence multiple-input multiple-output with spatial multiplexing or beamforming are determined.

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Torrieri, D. (2018). Code-Division Multiple Access. In: Principles of Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70569-9_7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70569-9_7

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