Sex, Gender, and Transgender: Metabolic Impact of Cross Hormone Therapy

  • Roberta de Souza Santos
  • Aaron P. Frank
  • Michael Douglas Nelson
  • Maurice M. Garcia
  • Biff F. Palmer
  • Deborah J. Clegg
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1043)


Most preclinical and clinical, animal, and human research has been biased with respect to sex and even more so with respect to gender. In fact, little is known about the impact of sex and even less about the influence of gender on overall metabolic processes. The National Institutes of Health has recognized this gap in scientific knowledge and now mandates that studies be conducted in both sexes and to include gender as variables influencing physiological processes such as metabolism. It is therefore critical to understand and appreciate how to incorporate sex and gender in preclinical and clinical research in order to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms by which metabolic processes differ by sex and gender. In this chapter, we define sex and gender and discuss when sex and gender are not aligned, such as that which occurs in transgender individuals, and how this impacts metabolic processes. We discuss the importance of understanding the influence and interactions between sex hormones and sex chromosomes rather than focusing on their relative contributions to metabolism in isolation. This knowledge will optimize therapies specific for individuals which need to encompass sex and gender.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberta de Souza Santos
    • 1
  • Aaron P. Frank
    • 1
  • Michael Douglas Nelson
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Maurice M. Garcia
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Biff F. Palmer
    • 9
  • Deborah J. Clegg
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Research Department, Diabetes and Obesity Research DivisionCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Applied Physiology and Advanced Imaging LabUniversity of TexasArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.KinesiologyUniversity of TexasArlingtonUSA
  4. 4.BioengineeringUniversity of TexasArlingtonUSA
  5. 5.Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterUniversity of TexasArlingtonUSA
  6. 6.Division of UrologyCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  7. 7.Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Transgender Surgery and Health ProgramLos AngelesUSA
  8. 8.Department of UrologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  9. 9.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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