Gender Barriers in Employment and Their Policy Implications in Transition Economies

  • Theranda Beqiri
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)


Economies in transition are well known for the very low activity rates in the labour market compared with western economies; Kosovo is amongst the countries which are in the early stages of transition with very low rates of employment and very high inactivity rates in the labour market, especially amongst the female participants. Policies regarding labour issues and human resources are in the first phases of implementation. In this independent empirical study, we use regression analysis to compare the differences between the public institutions and private sector as well as NGOs on implementation of the equal opportunity chances between gender regarding employment, by using the recruitment and selecting procedures. We find that there is gender inequality in private sector in recruitment and selection process, as the first barrier in entering the labour market. Therefore, implementation of recruitment and selection procedures is needed and should be implemented to reduce the barriers of new female entrants in the labour market, in order to have equal supply of the labour forces from both genders as well as an increased level of participation rates among females in the labour market.


Recruitment and selection Gender inequality Employment 


  1. Anker, R. (1997). Theories of occupational segregation by sex: An Overview. International Labour Review, 136(3), 315–339.Google Scholar
  2. Arrow, K. J. (1972). Racial discrimination in economic life. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  3. Becker, G. (1975). 2 National bureau of economic research human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. 1994. “Human capital revisited.”, Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, G. S. (1992). The economic way of looking at life. Revista Universidad EAFIT, 29(89), 7–21.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G., & Sowell, T. (1981). Affirmative action and equal opportunity.Google Scholar
  6. Becker, G., Sowell, T., & Vonnegut, K. Jr. (1982). Discrimination, affirmative action, and equal opportunity. The Fraser Institute. Canadian Cataloging in Publication Data Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN 0-88975-039-4.Google Scholar
  7. Beqiri, T. (2016). Labour market trends in transition economies with emphasis on gender inequalities. Acta Universitatis Danubius Oeconomica, 12(4), 72–85.Google Scholar
  8. Bielby, W. T., & Baron, J. N. (1986). Men and women at work: Sex segregation and statistical discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 91(4), 759–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borjas, G. J. (2016). The labour supply of undocumented immigrants. No. orrc15–02. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 22102 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 March 2016.Google Scholar
  10. Borjas, G. J., & Van Ours, J. C. (2000). Labour economics (Vol. 2). Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Darity, W. A. (1998). Intergroup disparity: Economic theory and social science evidence. Southern Economic Journal, 64(4), 806–826. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davalos, M. E., Sattar, S., Simler, K., Bidani, B., Reva, A., Tsirunyan, S., & Orlando, M. B. (2012). Kosovo – Gender gaps in education, health, and economic opportunities. The World Bank Group Europe and Central Asia region poverty reduction and economic management. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  13. Hill, M. A., & King, E. (1995). Women’s education and economic well-being. Feminist Economics, 1(2), 21–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoxha, D., & Krasniqi, B. (2008). Female entrepreneurship in Kosova: Does gender difference hypothesis hold? International Journal of Business and Management Science, 1(1), 49–65.Google Scholar
  15. Jurajda, Š., & Terrell, K. (2009). Regional unemployment and human Capital in Transition Economies. Economics of Transition, 17(2), 241–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGuire, D., Garavan, T., O’Donnell, D., & Dineen, D. (2002). “Labour market flexibility: In S. W. Polachek & W. S. Siebert (1993). The economics of earnings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Institutional Theory Perspective.”
  17. Miranda, V. (2011). Cooking, caring and volunteering: unpaid work around the world. OECD Social, Employment, and Migration Working Papers (116): 0_1,3–4,6–39.
  18. Phelps, E. (1972). The statistical theory of racism and sexism. American Economic Review, 62(4), 659–661.Google Scholar
  19. Polachek, S. W., & Siebert, W. S. (1993). The economics of earnings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tatli, A., Vassilopoulou, J., & Ozbilgin, M. (2013). An unrequited affinity between talent shortages and untapped female potential: The relevance of gender quotas for talent management in high growth potential economies of the Asia Pacific region. International Business Review, 22(3), 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ward-Warmedinger, M., & Macchiarelli, C. (2013). Transitions in labour market status in the EU transitions in labour market status in the EU. (7814): 34.Google Scholar

Other References

  1. Kosovo Agency of Statistics. “Results of the labour force survey 2012”. Social Statistics Department Labour Market Sector.Google Scholar
  2. Kosovo Agency of Statistics. “Results of the labour force survey 2015”. Social Statistics Department Labour Market Sector.Google Scholar
  3. Labour Law. (2010/03-L-212) ... of Kosovo: Last accessed.01.10.2017.
  4. Making the Labour Market Work for Females and Youth, Kosovo Human Development Report. (2016). Last accessed 27/01/2017
  5. Market, Labour. “Unemployment in Kosova.” Research paper, Riinvest (2003). Ministry of Education Science and Technology, MEST (2009). National Action Plan Against School Abandonment 2009–2014.Google Scholar
  6. Ministry of Education Science and Technology, MEST. Strategy for Development of Higher Education in Kosovo (2009-2015), Qirici Stefan: Ekonomiksi i Punes, Tiranë 2005, University LecturesGoogle Scholar
  7. Ministry of Education Science and Technology, MEST. “Kosovo Education Strategic Plan (2011-2016)”
  8. Wooldridge, M. J. Introductionary Econometrics – A Modern Approach pg82, 2002 ISBN-13:9780324113648, South-Western. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Business, University “Haxhi Zeka”PejëRepublic of Kosovo

Personalised recommendations