Winter Wind Environmental Comfort in Courtyards in Vernacular Architecture: A Case Study of the Fuyu Building in Yongding, Fujian

  • Ying-Ming Su
  • Hui-Ting Chang
Part of the Strategies for Sustainability book series (STSU)


Global warming is worsening. Sustainability is the main goal for reducing the consumption of energy and carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, and ecological architecture is the optimal means of reaching this goal. Vernacular architecture highlights local characteristics, emphasizing harmony with the natural environment and local conditions. Tulou, which have been listed as World Heritage Sites, maintain a livable internal environment that is warm in winter and cool in summer through the appropriate placement of openings and patios. People feel comfortable even without the use of appliances. This design adheres to the concept of sustainable development through ecological and energy conservation, providing an excellent example for modern architectural planning and design. Through field measurements of wind environment comfort, this study adopted a square tulou—the Fuyu Building in Yongding, Fujian, China—as an example, because its climatic conditions and architectural forms are in line with Taiwan’s current environmental status. Through comparisons of temperature, humidity, and wind field, the differences between the internal and external environments of the traditional communal residence were explored. The results showed that ventilation produced positive effects on indoor environmental comfort in the tulou through the placement of windows and patios. This design approach can serve as a reference for future ecological building design.


Wind field Tulou Vernacular architecture Ecological architecture Sustainable development 



This chapter represents part of the results obtained under the support of the National Science Council, Taiwan (Contract No. NSC101-2627-E-027-001-MY3).


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchitectureNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Graduate Institute of Architecture and Urban DesignNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan

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