Advertisement

There Once Was a Robot Storyteller: Measuring the Effects of Emotion and Non-verbal Behaviour

  • Hendrik StriepeEmail author
  • Birgit Lugrin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10652)

Abstract

Social Robots bear great potential to tell stories to human listeners. Through their embodiment and ability to display non-verbal and emotional behaviour, additional modalities can be used to transport the user into the story compared to traditional media such as books or audio books. Based on theoretical knowledge about the design of social robot storytellers and the analysis of human storytellers, we designed the behaviour of an emotional social robot storyteller and compared it to a neutral version of the robotic storyteller and the voice of a human storyteller represented by an audio book. Results suggest that the emotional robot is able to transport the participants equally well as the traditional audio book, while the neutral robot performed worse. We therefore claim, that emotional behaviour in the domain of robotic storytelling should be carefully designed to support the story rather then preventing a good transportation.

Keywords

Storytelling Social robot Emotion Non-verbal behaviour Narrative transportation Affective computing 

References

  1. 1.
    Zipes, J.: Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion. Routledge, London (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tolkien, J.R.R.: On Fairy-Stories. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1947)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Have, I., Pedersen, B.S.: Digital Audiobooks: New Media, Users, and Experiences, vol. 28. Routledge, London (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Luhrmann, T.M.: Audiobooks and the Return of Storytelling. New York Times Op-Ed, 23 February (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Paradeda, R.B., Martinho, C., Paiva, A.: Persuasion based on personality traits: using a social robot as storyteller. In: Companion of the 2017 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2017, Vienna, Austria, 6–9 March 2017, pp. 367–368 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park, H.W., Gelsomini, M., Lee, J.J., Breazeal, C.: Telling stories to robots: the effect of backchanneling on a child’s storytelling. In: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 100–108. ACM (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pelachaud, C., Gelin, R., Martin, J.C., Le, Q.A.: Expressive gestures displayed by a humanoid robot during a storytelling application. In: New Frontiers in Human-Robot Interaction (AISB), Leicester (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    DiSalvo, C.F., Gemperle, F., Forlizzi, J., Kiesler, S.: All robots are not created equal: the design and perception of humanoid robot heads. In: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, and Techniques, pp. 321–326. ACM (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breazeal, C.L.: Designing Sociable Robots. MIT press, Cambridge (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coles, S., Dautenhahn, K.: A robotic story-teller. In: Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Intelligent Robotic Systems, SIRS 2000, The University of Reading, England, pp. 18–20 (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dautenhahn, K., Nehaniv, C.: Artificial life and natural stories. In: International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, pp. 435–439 (1998)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elliott, C., Brzezinski, J., Sheth, S., Salvatoriello, R.: Story-morphing in the affective reasoning paradigm: generating stories semi-automatically for use with emotionally intelligent multimedia agents. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents, pp. 181–188. ACM (1998)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Green, M.C., Brock, T.C.: The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79(5), 701 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bradley, M.M., Lang, P.J.: Measuring emotion: the self-assessment manikin and the semantic differential. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 25(1), 49–59 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Laer, T., De Ruyter, K., Visconti, L.M., Wetzels, M.: The extended transportation-imagery model: a meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of consumers’ narrative transportation. J. Consum. Res. 40(5), 797–817 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mutlu, B., Forlizzi, J., Hodgins, J.: A storytelling robot: modeling and evaluation of human-like gaze behavior. In: 2006 6th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, pp. 518–523. IEEE (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kory Westlund, J., Gordon, G., Spaulding, S., Lee, J.J., Plummer, L., Martinez, M., Das, M., Breazeal, C.: Lessons from teachers on performing HRI studies with young children in schools. In: The Eleventh ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction, pp. 383–390. IEEE Press (2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kory, J., Breazeal, C.: Storytelling with robots: learning companions for preschool children’s language development. In: 2014 RO-MAN: The 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 643–648. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gelin, R., d’Alessandro, C., Le, Q.A., Deroo, O., Doukhan, D., Martin, J.C., Pelachaud, C., Rilliard, A., Rosset, S.: Towards a storytelling humanoid robot. In: AAAI Fall Symposium: Dialog with Robots (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Costa, S., Brunete, A., Bae, B.C., Mavridis, N.: Emotional storytelling using virtual and robotic agents. arXiv preprint arXiv:1607.05327 (2016)
  21. 21.
    Picard, R.W.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1995)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V.: Unmasking the face: a guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Ishk, Los Altos (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xu, J., Broekens, J., Hindriks, K., Neerincx, M.A.: Effects of a robotic storyteller’s moody gestures on storytelling perception. In: 2015 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII), pp. 449–455. IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Damiano, R., Pizzo, A.: Emotions in drama characters and virtual agents. In: AAAI Spring Symposium: Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior, pp. 30–37 (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lombardo, V., Damiano, R.: Semantic annotation of narrative media objects. Multimedia Tools Appl. 59(2), 407–439 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Francisco, V., Hervás, R., Peinado, F., Gervás, P.: Emotales: creating a corpus of folk tales with emotional annotations. Lang. Resour. Eval. 46(3), 341–381 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hegel, F., Muhl, C., Wrede, B., Hielscher-Fastabend, M., Sagerer, G.: Understanding social robots. In: Second International Conferences on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, ACHI 2009, pp. 169–174. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cassell, J., McNeill, D.: Gesture and the poetics of prose. Poetics Today 12(3), 375–404 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Appel, M., Gnambs, T., Richter, T., Green, M.C.: The transportation scale-short form (ts-sf). Media Psychol. 18(2), 243–266 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Computer InteractionUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations