Advertisement

Social Skills

Chapter
  • 2.1k Downloads
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit impairments in social skills functioning, which is considered one of the core characteristics of the disability. As such, much research has been devoted to both understanding the social skills impairments of individuals with ASD and the identification of evidence-based strategies that may support development of these important skills. This chapter reviews some of the common social skills impairments exhibited by individuals with ASD and their impact on the daily functioning and outcomes of individuals. Methods for selecting appropriate social skills targets for intervention with individuals with ASD are discussed, including common social skills targeted in the intervention research. Finally, evidence-based strategies used to address social skills development for individuals with ASD are reviewed. The review includes discussion of strategies that provide intervention directly to the individual with ASD, peer-mediated strategies, and parent-mediated strategies. Resources regarding various strategies are included throughout the chapter to support the reader in locating additional information about a particular strategy.

Keywords

Peer-mediated Strategies Parent-mediated Intervention Target Social Skills Laugeson Sansosti 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. K., Oti, R. S., Lord, C., & Welch, K. (2009). Patterns of growth in adaptive social abilities among children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(7), 1019–1034.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Banda, D. R., Hart, S. L., & Liu-Gitz, L. (2010). Impact of training peers and children with autism on social skills during center time activities in inclusive classrooms. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(4), 619–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banda, D. R., Matuszny, R. M., & Turkan, S. (2007). Video modeling strategies to enhance appropriate behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(6), 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battaglia, A. A., & Radley, K. C. (2014). Peer-mediated social skills training for children with autism spectrum disorder. Beyond Behavior, 23(2), 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauminger, N., Solomon, M., Aviezer, A., Heung, K., Gazit, L., Brown, J., et al. (2008). Children with autism and their friends: A multidimensional study of friendship in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(2), 135–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 264–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellini, S., Benner, L., & Peters-Myszak, J. (2009). A systematic approach to teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders: A guide for practitioners. Beyond Behavior, 19(1), 26–39.Google Scholar
  9. Buggey, T., & Ogle, L. (2012). Video self-modeling. Psychology in the Schools, 49(1), 52–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camargo, S. P. H., Rispoli, M., Ganz, J., Hong, E. R., Davis, H., & Mason, R. (2014). A review of the quality of behaviorally-based intervention research to improve social interaction skills of children with ASD in inclusive settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(9), 2096–2116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2000). Prosocial foundations of children’s academic achievement. Psychological Science, 11(4), 302–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan, J. M., Lang, R., Rispoli, M., O’Reilly, M., Sigafoos, J., & Cole, H. (2009). Use of peer-mediated interventions in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(4), 876–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, J. M., & O’Reilly, M. F. (2008). A Social Stories (TM) intervention package for students with autism in inclusive classroom settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 405–409.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 537–552.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chevallier, C., Grezes, J., Molesworth, C., Berthoz, S., & Happé, F. (2012). Brief report: Selective social anhedonia in high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(7), 1504–1509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiang, C.-H., Soong, W.-T., Lin, T.-L., & Rogers, S. J. (2008). Nonverbal communication skills in young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(10), 1898–1906.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Chiang, H.-M., Cheung, Y. K., Li, H., & Tsai, L. Y. (2013). Factors associated with participation in employment for high school leavers with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(8), 1832–1842.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiang, H.-M., & Kemp, K. (2016). Social skills interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in inclusive settings: A review of the literature. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, B. R., Moore, J. E., Powers, C. J., Cleveland, M., & Greenberg, M. T. (2014). Patterns of early reading and social skills associated with academic success in elementary school. Early Education and Development, 25(8), 1248–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crozier, S., & Tincani, M. (2007). Effects of social stories on prosocial behavior of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1803–1814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., et al. (2004). Early social attention impairments in autism: Social orienting, joint attention, and attention to distress. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Delano, M., & Snell, M. E. (2006). The effects of social stories on the social engagement of children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dugan, E., Kamps, D., Leonard, B., Watkins, N., Rheinberger, A., & Stackhaus, J. (1995). Effects of cooperative learning groups during social-studies for students with autism and 4th-grade peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(2), 175–188.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Elias, M. J., & Haynes, N. M. (2008). Social competence, social support, and academic achievement in minority, low-income, urban elementary school children. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 474–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feldman, E. K., & Matos, R. (2013). Training paraprofessionals to facilitate social interactions between children with autism and their typically developing peers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(3), 169–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fettig, A. (2013). Social skills training (SST) fact sheet. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.Google Scholar
  27. Frankel, F., Myatt, R., Sugar, C., Whitham, C., Gorospe, C. M., & Laugeson, E. (2010). A randomized controlled study of parent-assisted children’s friendship training with children having autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(7), 827–842.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Ganz, J. B. (2007). Using visual script interventions to address communication skills. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(2), 54–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ganz, J. B., Earles-Vollrath, T. L., & Cook, K. E. (2011). Video modeling: A visually based intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ganz, J. B., & Flores, M. M. (2008). Effects of the use of visual strategies in play groups for children with autism spectrum disorders and their peers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(5), 926–940.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganz, J. B., Heath, A. K., Lund, E. M., Camargo, S. P. H., Rispoli, M. J., Boles, M., et al. (2012). Effects of peer-mediated implementation of visual scripts in middle school. Behavior Modification, 36(3), 378–398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gelbar, N. W., Anderson, C., McCarthy, S., & Buggey, T. (2012). Video self-modeling as an intervention strategy for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Psychology in the Schools, 49(1), 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gillespie-Lynch, K., Sepeta, L., Wang, Y., Marshall, S., Gomez, L., Sigman, M., et al. (2012). Early childhood predictors of the social competence of adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(2), 161–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gonzalez-Lopez, A., & Kamps, D. M. (1997). Social skills training to increase social interactions between children with autism and their typical peers. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 12(1), 2–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gray, C. (2015). The new social story book: Revised and expanded 15th anniversary edition. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.Google Scholar
  36. Harms, M. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2010). Facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychology Review, 20(3), 290–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Harper, C. B., Symon, J. B. G., & Frea, W. D. (2008). Recess is time-in: Using peers to improve social skills of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(5), 815–826.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., & Alessandri, M. (1990). Teaching youths with autism to offer assistance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23(3), 297–305.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hobson, R. P., & Lee, A. (1998). Hello and goodbye: A study of social engagement in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(2), 117–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hughes, C., Golas, M., Cosgriff, J., Brigham, N., Edwards, C., & Cashen, K. (2011). Effects of a social skills intervention among high school students with intellectual disabilities and autism and their general education peers. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 36(1–2), 46–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Humphrey, N., & Symes, W. (2011). Peer interaction patterns among adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) in mainstream school settings. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 15(4), 397–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ingersoll, B., & Dvortcsak, A. (2006). Including parent training in the early childhood special education curriculum for children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ingersoll, B., & Schreibman, L. (2006). Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: Effects on language, pretend play, and joint attention. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(4), 487–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jones, C. D., & Schwartz, I. S. (2009). When asking questions is not enough: An observational study of social communication differences in high functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(3), 432–443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones, V. (2007). “I felt like I did something good”—The impact on mainstream pupils of a peer tutoring programme for children with autism. British Journal of Special Education, 34(1), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kamps, D., Thiemann-Bourque, K., Heitzman-Powell, L., Schwartz, I., Rosenberg, N., Mason, R., et al. (2015). A comprehensive peer network intervention to improve social communication of children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized trial in kindergarten and first grade. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(6), 1809–1824.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Kamps, D. M., Potucek, J., Lopez, A. G., Kravits, T., & Kemmerer, K. (1997). The use of peer networks across multiple settings to improve social interaction for students with autism. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7(3), 335–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kasari, C., Rotheram-Fuller, E., Locke, J., & Gulsrud, A. (2012). Making the connection: Randomized controlled trial of social skills at school for children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(4), 431–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Frea, W. D., & Fredeen, R. M. (2001). Identifying early intervention targets for children with autism in inclusive school settings. Behavior Modification, 25(5), 745–761.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Koegel, R. L., Bradshaw, J. L., Ashbaugh, K., & Koegel, L. K. (2014). Improving question-asking initiations in young children with autism using pivotal response treatment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(4), 816–827.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (2006). Pivotal response treatments for autism: Communication, social, and academic development. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  52. Kohler, F. W., Anthony, L. J., Steighner, S. A., & Hoyson, M. (2001). Teaching social interaction skills in the integrated preschool: An examination of naturalistic tactics. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(2), 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kohler, F. W., Greteman, C., Raschke, D., & Highnam, C. (2007). Using a buddy skills package to increase the social interactions between a preschooler with autism and her peers. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 27(3), 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kohler, F. W., Strain, P. S., Hoyson, M., Davis, L., Donina, W. M., & Rapp, N. (1995). Using a group-oriented contingency to increase social interactions between children with autism and their peers. A preliminary analysis of corollary supportive behaviors. Behavior Modification, 19(1), 10–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Social interaction skills for children with autism: A script-fading procedure for beginning readers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(2), 191–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kucharczyk, S. (2013). Reinforcement (R+) fact sheet. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, The National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders.Google Scholar
  57. Kuhn, L. R., Bodkin, A. E., Devlin, S. D., & Doggett, R. A. (2008). Using pivotal response training with peers in special education to facilitate play in two children with autism. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43(1), 37–45.Google Scholar
  58. Lane, K. L., Givner, C. C., & Pierson, M. R. (2004). Teacher expectations of student behavior social skills necessary for success in elementary school classrooms. The Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 104–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lane, K. L., Wehby, J. H., & Cooley, C. (2006). Teacher expectations of students’ classroom behavior across the grade span: Which social skills are necessary for success? Exceptional Children, 72(2), 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Laugeson, E. A. (2013). The PEERS ® curriculum for school based professionals: Social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Laugeson, E. A., Frankel, F., Gantman, A., Dillon, A. R., & Mogil, C. (2012). Evidence-based social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: The UCLA PEERS program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1025–1036.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Laushey, K. M., & Heflin, L. J. (2000). Enhancing social skills of kindergarten children with autism through the training of multiple peers as tutors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 183–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Laushey, K. M., Heflin, L. J., Shippen, M., Alberto, P. A., & Fredrick, L. (2009). Concept mastery routines to teach social skills to elementary children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(10), 1435–1448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Locke, J., Ishijima, E. H., Kasari, C., & London, N. (2010). Loneliness, friendship quality and the social networks of adolescents with high-functioning autism in an inclusive school setting. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 10(2), 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Loftin, R. L., Odom, S. L., & Lantz, J. F. (2008). Social interaction and repetitive motor behaviors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1124–1135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lyons, J., Cappadocia, M., & Weiss, J. A. (2011). Social characteristics of students with autism spectrum disorders across classroom settings. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 17(1), 77–82.Google Scholar
  67. Marzullo-Kerth, D., Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Townsend, D. B. (2011). Using multiple-exemplar training to teach a generalized repertoire of sharing to children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(2), 279–294.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Mazurek, M. O. (2013). Loneliness, friendship, and well-being in adults with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 18(3), 223–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mazurik-Charles, R., & Stefanou, C. (2010). Using paraprofessionals to teach social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(2), 161–169.Google Scholar
  70. McConachie, H., & Diggle, T. (2007). Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 13(1), 120–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McConnell, S. R. (2002). Interventions to facilitate social interaction for young children with autism: Review of available research and recommendations for educational intervention and future research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(5), 351–372.Google Scholar
  72. McGee, G. G., & Daly, T. (2007). Incidental teaching of age-appropriate social phrases to children with autism. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32(2), 112–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meadan, H. (2013). How can I help? Prompting procedures to support children's learning. Young Exceptional Children, 16(4), 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mundschenk, N. A., & Sasso, G. M. (1995). Assessing sufficient social exemplars for students with autism. Behavioral Disorders, 21(1), 62–78.Google Scholar
  75. Mundy, P., Sigman, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism: The contribution of non-verbal communication measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27(5), 657–669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Orsmond, G. I., Krauss, M. W., & Seltzer, M. M. (2004). Peer relationships and social and recreational activities among adolescents and adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(3), 245–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Orsmond, G. I., Shattuck, P. T., Cooper, B. P., Sterzing, P. R., & Anderson, K. A. (2013). Social participation among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(11), 2710–2719.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Peterson, C. C., Slaughter, V. P., & Paynter, J. (2007). Social maturity and theory of mind in typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(12), 1243–1250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pierce, K., & Schreibman, L. (1997). Using peer trainers to promote social behavior in autism are they effective at enhancing multiple social modalities? Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 12(4), 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Plavnick, J. B., MacFarland, M. C., & Ferreri, S. J. (2015). Variability in the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention package for children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(2), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao, P. A., Beidel, D. C., & Murray, M. J. (2008). Social skills interventions for children with Asperger’s syndrome or high-functioning autism: A review and recommendations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(2), 353–361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2010). Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: Evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 149–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rotheram-Fuller, E., Kasari, C., Chamberlain, B., & Locke, J. (2010). Social involvement of children with autism spectrum disorders in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(11), 1227–1234.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Sainato, D. M., Goldstein, H., & Strain, P. S. (1992). Effects of self-evaluation on preschool children’s use of social-interaction strategies with their classmates with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 127–141.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Sani Bozkurt, S., & Vuran, S. (2014). An analysis of the use of social stories in teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(5), 1875–1892.Google Scholar
  86. Sansosti, F. J. (2010). Teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders using tiers of support: A guide for school-based professionals. Psychology in the Schools, 47(3), 257–281.Google Scholar
  87. Sansosti, F. J., & Powell-Smith, K. A. (2006). Using social stories to improve the social behavior of children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sansosti, F. J., & Powell-Smith, K. A. (2008). Using computer-presented social stories and video models to increase the social communication skills of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 162–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., et al. (2015). Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2411–2428.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Schultz, T. R., Schmidt, C. T., & Stichter, J. P. (2011). A review of parent education programs for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 26(2), 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Seltzer, M. M., Shattuck, P., Abbeduto, L., & Greenberg, J. S. (2004). Trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 10(4), 234–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Shabani, D. B., Katz, R. C., Wilder, D. A., Beauchamp, K., Taylor, C. R., & Fischer, K. J. (2002). Increasing social initiations in children with autism: Effects of a tactile prompt. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35(1), 79–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Shire, S. Y., Goods, K., Shih, W., Distefano, C., Kaiser, A., Wright, C., et al. (2015). Parents’ adoption of social communication intervention strategies: Families including children with autism spectrum disorder who are minimally verbal. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(6), 1712–1724.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Stone, W. L., Ousley, O. Y., Yoder, P. J., Hogan, K. L., & Hepburn, S. L. (1997). Nonverbal communication in two-and three-year-old children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27(6), 677–696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sullivan, M., Finelli, J., Marvin, A., Garrett-Mayer, E., Bauman, M., & Landa, R. (2007). Response to joint attention in toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorder: A prospective study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(1), 37–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Taylor, B. A., & Hoch, H. (2008). Teaching children with autism to respond to and initiate bids for joint attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 377–391.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Ventola, P., Saulnier, C. A., Steinberg, E., Chawarska, K., & Klin, A. (2014). Early-emerging social adaptive skills in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: An item analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(2), 283–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang, P., & Spillane, A. (2009). Evidence-based social skills interventions for children with autism: A meta-analysis. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44(3), 318–342.Google Scholar
  99. Wetherby, A. M., Watt, N., Morgan, L., & Shumway, S. (2007). Social communication profiles of children with autism spectrum disorders late in the second year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 960–975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., et al. (2014). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, Autism Evidence-Based Practice Review Group.Google Scholar
  101. Young, G. S., Rogers, S. J., Hutman, T., Rozga, A., Sigman, M., & Ozonoff, S. (2011). Imitation from 12 to 24 months in autism and typical development: A longitudinal Rasch analysis. Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 1565.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rhode Island CollegeProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations