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Microbial Triggers in Autoimmunity, Severe Allergy, and Autoallergy

  • Fariza M. S. Badloe
  • Sherief R. Janmohamed
  • Johannes Ring
  • Jan GutermuthEmail author
Chapter
  • 417 Downloads
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases (allergies, autoimmune diseases, and autoinflammatory diseases) is rising world-wide and their management is difficult, since treatments usually are mainly symptomatic. Insight in the exact pathomechanisms is crucial for focused prevention or improvement of therapies.

Microbial factors including bacteria (mainly Staphylococcus aureus), viruses and fungi are important factors in atopic dermatitis. Allergic asthma is also heavily impacted by Staphylococcus aureus, but also by multiple viruses. Viral complications in severe allergies can lead to life-threatening disease states. In autoimmunity, many viruses and bacteria play a role in disease development due to molecular mimicry or bystander activation.

Furthermore, it is hypothesized that autoallergy can link allergy, chronification of disease, and autoimmunity. Here, fungal triggers are suspected to elicit autoreactive IgE and T helper 1 responses in atopic dermatitis, which can maintain a vicious inflammatory cycle due to constant autoallergen release by scratching. Taken together, multiple microbial factors elicit or aggravate immune mediated diseases, such as allergies and autoimmunity.

Keywords

Allergy Asthma Atopic dermatitis Autoallergy Autoimmune diseases Microbial triggers 

Abbreviations

α-NAC

Nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunit alpha

AD

Atopic dermatitis

APC

Antigen presenting cell

C. jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni

CVB4

Coxsackievirus B4

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

GBS

Guillain-Barré syndrome

GD1a

Disialoganglioside

GM1

Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside

HLA

Human leucocyte antigen

H. pylori

Helicobacter pylori

HRV

Human rhinovirus

HSK

Herpetic stromal keratitis

IFV

Influenza virus

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IL

Interleukin

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MGL

Malassezia globosa

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

MnSOD

Manganese superoxide dismutase

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

NK cells

Natural killer cells

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus

S. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

S. epidermis

Staphylococcus epidermidis

SE

Staphylococcal enterotoxin

T1D

Type-1 diabetes

TH

T helper cell

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TSLP

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin

Notes

Conflicts of Interest

None

Funding Sources

None

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fariza M. S. Badloe
    • 1
  • Sherief R. Janmohamed
    • 1
  • Johannes Ring
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jan Gutermuth
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyVrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZB)BrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and Allergy, BiedersteinTechnical UniversityMunichGermany

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