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The Gut Microbiome and Its Marriage to the Immune System: Can We Change It All?

  • Eva UntersmayrEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious Diseases book series (BAID)

Abstract

Major research efforts during the past decades have revealed the close interaction between the host immune system and the symbionts colonizing the surfaces of the human body. Due to the high number of microbes found in this environment correlating with its role as an essential immune organ, the gastrointestinal tract has been a major focus of research. This chapter reviews current knowledge regarding the role of microbial colonization with beneficial microbes and the influence of released mediators on innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Several life style factors seems to substantially influence the composition of the microbiome especially during the first period of life. Nevertheless, also later in life factors such as dietary habits, medication intake or life style might alter the gut microbiota. Thus, strategies to beneficially modulate the overall microbial composition are essential to treat dysbiosis, which has been described to contribute to the onset or progression of various immune mediated intestinal diseases.

Keywords

Microbiota Immune response Allergy Gastrointestinal tract Colonization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research of the author is supported by grants KLI284-B00 and WKP39 of the Austrian Science Fund FWF, by grant P1621673 of the Austrian Ministry of Science, Research and Economy and a research project supported by Nordmark GmbH.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and ImmunologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria

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