Production and Biosynthesis of Bioactive Stilbenoids in Hairy Root Cultures
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Stilbenoids are plant defense phenolic compounds that exhibit numerous biological activities with potential applications in human health. These compounds are present in non-taxonomically related plants species, such as grape and peanut. As many other defense compounds, most stilbenoids are either absent or accumulate in very low levels in non-stressed plants, thereby, highlighting the need to develop a sustainable system for their production. In order to address this issue, hairy root cultures of stilbenoid-producing species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), muscadine (V. rotundifolia), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea), have been established via infection of plant tissues with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Several elicitation treatments have been explored in order to increase the levels of stilbenoids in these cultures. Among these treatments, the co-treatment with methyl jasmonate and methyl-β-cyclodextrin has been the most effective in providing sustainable and high levels of stilbenoids. Different types of stilbenoids have been identified in hairy roots of different plant species. For instance, prenylated stilbenoids are found in elicitor-treated peanut hairy root cultures but not in hairy root cultures of muscadine or grapevine. In addition to providing a platform for stilbenoid production, hairy roots are also being explored to study the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. The present chapter provides the status of production and biosynthesis of stilbenoids in grapevine, muscadine, and peanut hairy root cultures.
KeywordsAgrobacterium rhizogenes Cyclodextrin Elicitation Grape Grapevine Hairy root Muscadine Peanut Stilbene Stilbenoid
Research in the Medina-Bolivar laboratory focused on the production of stilbenoids in peanut has been supported by the United States Department of Agriculture-NIFA (Grant No. 2014-67014-21701) and the Arkansas Biosciences Institute.
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