Ethics and Accountability and the Challenges

  • Haroon A. Khan


Although the question of ethics in public life has existed from the earliest times of human existence, it has achieved increased prominence because of globalization. The annual data on corruption published by Transparency International and other agencies made it available for the concerned citizens about their country’s status on the corruption index. The countries of the world, especially the developing countries, can no longer keep the lid on corruption. Although many developing countries try to ignore their status on corruption, their governments now know that they are being watched by the people of the world and may be under pressure to take action. Khan analyzes the major theories regarding ethics and investigates the current issues of privacy, organizational politics, justice, fairness, contracting, ethical climate, corruption and violence, and global ethics. The chapter also contains a statistical analysis of corruption and globalization and shows the link between the two phenomena.


Ethical Climate Global Ethics American American Society For Public Administration (ASPA) International International City/County Management City/County Management Association (ICMA) International Personnel Management Association (IPMA) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ackerman, S. R. (2002). Grand’ Corruption and the Ethics of Global Business. Journal of Banking and Finance, 26(1), 889–918.Google Scholar
  2. Amstutz, M. R. (2008). International Ethics: Concepts, Theories and Cases in Global Politics. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  3. Annan, K. (2003). Foreword to United Nations Convention Against Corruption, G.A. Res. 58/4, U.N. Doc. A/RES/58/4, at iii (October 31, 2003). Available at
  4. Asongu, S. (2014). Globalization, Fighting Corruption and Development. How Are These Phenomena Linearly and Non-linearly Related in Wealth Effects? Journal of Economic Studies, 40(3), 346–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benavides, A. D., & Dicke, L. (2016). Upholding Ethical Conduct in Public Professional Organizations: An Assessment of ICMA’s Code of Ethics. Global Ethics Review, 7(2), 34–72.Google Scholar
  6. Berman, E. M., & West, J. P. (1994). Values Management in Local Government. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 14, 6–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonaglia, F., Braga de Macedo, J., & Bussolo, M. (2001). How Globalization Improves Governance (Working Paper, No. 181). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  8. Bozeman, B. (2007). Public Values and Public Interest: Counterbalancing Economic Individualism.
  9. Burke, J. P. (1985). Bureaucratic Responsibility. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, T. L. (1990). Hierarchy, Virtue, and the Practice of Public Administration: A Perspective for Normative Ethics. Public Administration Review, 47(4), 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper, T. L. (2011). The Responsible Administrator. Hoboken: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Cragg, A. W. (1988). Business, Globalization and the Logic and Ethics of Corruption. International Journal, 53(4), 643–656.Google Scholar
  13. Denhardt, K. G. (1988). The Ethics of Public Service: Resolving Moral Dilemmas in Public Organizations. Westport: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  14. Dicke, L., & Ott, S. (1999). Public Agency Accountability in Human Services Contracting. Public Productivity & Management Review, 22, 502–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobel, P. J. (1990). Integrity in the Public Service. Public Administration Review, 50(2), 354–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dubnick, M. J. (2003). Accountability and Ethics: Reconsidering the Relationships. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 6(3), 405–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dubnick, M. (2005). Accountability and the Promise of Performance: In Search of the Mechanisms. Public Performance and Management Review, 28(3), 376–417.Google Scholar
  18. Elster, J. (1999). Accountability in Athenian Politics. In A. Przeworski, S. C. Stokes, & B. Manin (Eds.), Democracy, Accountability, and Representation (pp. 253–278). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Emison, G. A. (2010). Ethics of Innovation for Public Service Professionals. The Public Sector Innovation Journal 15(3), 2–10.Google Scholar
  20. Esman, M. J. (1997). Public Administration, Ethnic Conflict, and Economic Development. Public Administration Review, 57(6), 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, M. K. (1992). Perceptions of Organizational Politics. Journal of Management, 18(1), 93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. D., Galang, M. C., Zhou, J., Kacmar, M. K., & Howard, J. L. (1996). Perceptions of Organizational Politics: Prediction, Stress-Related Implications and Outcomes. Human Relations, 49(2), 233–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Folger, R., Konovsky, M. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1992). A Due Process Metaphor for Performance Appraisal. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 14, pp. 129–177). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  24. Forrer, J., Kee, J. E., Newcomer, K. E., & Boyer, E. (2010). Public-Private Partnerships and the Public Accountability Question. Public Administration Review, 70(3), 475–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frederickson, H. G. (1997). The Spirit of Public Administration. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Gawthorp, L. C. (1998). Public Service and Democracy: Ethical Imperatives for the 21st Century. New York: Chatham House.Google Scholar
  27. Goldoff, A. C. (1996). The Public Interest Standard and Deregulation: The Impact of the Fairness Doctrine. International Journal of Public Administration, 19(1), 51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goss, R. P. (1996). Distinct Public Administration Ethics? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART, 6(4), 573–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hanbury, G. L., Sapat, A., & Washington, C. (2004). Know Yourself and Take Charge of Your Own Destiny: The “Fit Model” of Leadership. Public Administration Review, 64(5), 566–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harris, K. J., & Kacmar, M. K. (2005). Easing the Strain: The Buffer Role of Supervisors in the Perceptions of Politics-Strain Relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hazlet, T. K., & Sullivan, S. D. (1994). Professional Organizations and Healthcare Industry Support: Ethical Conflict? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 3(2), 236–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, C. R. (2011). Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Jordan, S. R., & Gray, P. W. (2011). The Ethics of Public Administration: The Challenges of Global Government. Waco: Baylor University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kacmar, M. K., & Ferris, G. R. (1991). Perceptions of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS): Development and Construct Validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(1), 193–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klitgaard, R. (1988). Controlling Corruption. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kohlberg, L. (1981). The Philosophy of Moral Development. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  37. Kolthoff, E., Erakovich, R., & Lasthuizen, K. (2010). Comparative Analysis of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Culture in Local Government: The USA, The Netherlands, Montenegro and Serbia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(7), 596–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lloyd, B. (1993). Corruption: Where to Draw the Line? Business Ethics: A European Review, 2(1), 97–100.Google Scholar
  39. Manzetti, L. (1999). Privatization South American Style. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mendel, S. C., & Brudney, J. L. (2014). Doing Good, Public Good, and Public Value. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 25(1), 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Menzel, D. C. (2009). In Pursuit of Ethical Governance. Public Manager, 38(2), 30–35.Google Scholar
  42. Monfardini, P. (2010). Accountability in the New Public Sector: A Comparative Case Study. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(7), 632–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moore, M. H. (1995). Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Moore, H. (2013). Public Values in Public Administration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Morse, R. S. (2010). Integrative Public Leadership: Catalyzing Collaboration to Create Public Value. Leadership Quarterly, 21(2), 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mulgan, R. (2000). Accountability: An Ever-Expanding Concept? Public Administration, 78(3), 555–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mulgan, R. (2003). One Cheer for Hierarchy—Accountability in Disjointed Governance. Political Science, 55(2), 6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Neimi, R. G., Craig, S. C., & Mattei, F. (1991). Measuring Internal Political Efficacy in the 1988 National Election Study. American Political Science Review, 85, 1407–1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nellis, J., & Kikeri, S. (1989). Public Enterprise Reform: Privatization and the World Bank. World Development, 17(2), 659–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. OECD. (2017). OECD Recommendation on Public Integrity. Retrieved March 5, 2017, from
  51. Peters, G. B. (1989). The Politics of Bureaucracy (3rd ed.). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  52. Posner, P. (2002). Accountability Challenges of Third Party Government. In L. Salamon (Ed.), Tools of Government: A Guide to the New Government (pp. 523–551). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Rawls, J. A. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Rohr, J. (1978). Ethics for Bureaucrats. An Essay on Law and Values (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  55. Romzek, B. S. (2015). Living Accountability: Hot Rhetoric, Cool Theory, and Uneven Practice. PS, Political Science and Politics, 48(1), 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Romzek, B., & Dubnick, M. (1987). Accountability in the Public Sector: Lessons from the Challenger Tragedy. Public Administration Review, 47(1), 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Safty, A. (2003). Moral Leadership: Beyond Management and Governance. Harvard International Review, 25, 84–89.Google Scholar
  58. Sami, A., Jusoh, A., Mahfar, M., & Khan, M. M. (2016). Role of Ethical Culture in Creating Public Value. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(S4), 255–261.Google Scholar
  59. Semple, K. (2016, May 28). Grass-Roots Anti-Corruption Drive Puts Heat on Mexican Lawmakers. New York Times.Google Scholar
  60. Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. (1993). Corruption. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(30), 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sinclair, A. (1995). The Chameleon of Accountability: Forms and Discourses. Accounting Organizations and Society, 20(2), 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Skogstad, G. (2003). Who Governs? Who Should Govern? Political Authority and Legitimacy in Canada in the Twenty-First Century. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 36(5), 955–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stoker, G. (2006). Public Value Management: A New Narrative for Networked Governance? The American Review of Public Administration, 36(41), 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tero, E. (2007). Governance and Accountability: A Shift in Conceptualization. Public Administration Quarterly, 31(1), 1–38.Google Scholar
  65. Thompson, D. F. (1985). The Possibility of Administrative Ethics. Public Administration Review, 45, 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thompson, F., & Rizova, P. (2015). Understanding and Creating Public Value: Business Is the Engine, Government the Flywheel (and also the Regulator). Public Management Review, 17(4), 565–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tomescu, M., & Popescu, M. A. (2013). Ethics and Conflicts of Interest in the Public Sector. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 5(2), 201–206.Google Scholar
  68. Transparency International. (2015). Corruption Perception Index 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2016, from
  69. Transparency International. (2016). Corruption Perception Index. Retrieved February 10, 2017, from
  70. Treisman, D. (2000). The Causes of Corruption: A Cross-National Study. Journal of Public Economics, 76(3), 399–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Trevino, L. K., Weaver, G. R., Gibson, D. G., & Toffler, B. L. (1999). Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance: What Works and What Hurts. California Management Review, 41(2), 131–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tyler, T., Denhard, J., & Thomas, T. (2008). The Ethical Commitment to Compliance: Building Value-Based Cultures, California. Management Review, 50(2), 31–51.Google Scholar
  73. UN. (2007). Ethics, Integrity, and Accountability in the Public Sector: Re-building Trust in Government Through Implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  74. Van Belle, S., & Mayhew, S. H. (2016). What Can We Learn on Public Accountability from Non-health Disciplines: A Meta-Narrative Review. BMJ Open, 6(7), e010425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Van de Walle, S., & Bouckaert, G. (2003). Public Service Performance and Trust in Governance: The Problem of Causality. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(8), 891–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van Ryzin, G., Muzzio, D., Immerwahr, S., Gullick, L., & Martinez, E. (2004). Drivers and Consequences of Citizen Satisfaction: An Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Model to New York City. Public Administration Review, 64(3), 331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1987). A Theory and Measure of Ethical Climate in Organizations. Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 9(1), 51–71.Google Scholar
  78. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The Organizational Bases of Ethical Work Climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(1), 101–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2007). Citizens’ Perceptions of Politics and Ethics in Public Administration: A Five-Year National Study of Their Relationships to Satisfaction with Services, Trust in Governance, and Value-Orientations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 17(2), 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wart, V. M. (1996). The Sources of Ethical Decision-Making for Individuals in the Public Sector. Public Administration Review, 56(6), 525–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Warwick, D. P. (1981). The Ethics of Administrative Discretion. In J. Fleishman, L. Leibman, & M. Moore (Eds.), Public Duties: The Moral Obligations of Government Officials. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wei, S. J. (2000). Natural Openness and Good Governance (Working Paper, No. 7765). Cambridge, MA: NBER.Google Scholar
  83. Welch, E. W. (2005). Linking Citizen Satisfaction with E-Government and Trust in Government. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(3), 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wszelaki, J. W., & Pelletier, J. (2016). Emerging Risks in Auditing and Accountability. International Journal of Government and Financial Management, 65(2), 26–31.Google Scholar
  85. Zekos, G. I. (2004). Ethics Versus Corruption in Globalization. The Journal of Management Development, 23(7–8), 631–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haroon A. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Henderson State UniversityArkadelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations