Globalization and Leadership Challenges

  • Haroon A. Khan


In an age of globalization, increased importance is given to the study of public leadership. Present-day leadership cannot afford to limit its actions within the limits of the sovereign territory of one nation. Modern leaders need to think globally in terms of any public policy, which is interconnected with the world at large. The tasks of public leadership have become complicated through the involvement of formal and informal actors, both domestic and international. In a globalized world, leaders find themselves limited by international financial organizations. Even within the country, the leaders find themselves limited by the civil society from different countries but united in a mission. Furthermore, the issues are complex and the solutions require actions which are conditioned by factors beyond their control. Despite the constraints, the leaders are crucial for the overall welfare of countries. Khan analyzes various leadership theories and the challenges of organization culture, crises, ethics, bureaucratic politics and contracting.


  1. Adler, N. J., & Bartholomew, S. (1992). Managing Globally Competent People. Academy of Management Executive, 6(1), 52–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal, J., & Malloy, D. C. (1999). Ethical Climate Dimension in a Not-for-Profit Organization: An Empirical Study. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akindele, S., & Afolabi, Y. (2013). Leadership and Its Place in Organizations: A Theoretical Synthetic Analysis (Note 1). Public Administration Research, 2(1), 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali, A. (2006). Securing Global Public Goods. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 16(3–4), 1–11.Google Scholar
  5. Allert, J., & Innes-Brown, M. (2005). Building Trust, Communication and Leadership for New Globalization. Journal of Asia Pacific Marketing, 4(1), 41–51.Google Scholar
  6. Allison, G. (1971). The Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  7. Amabile, T. M. (1988). A Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (pp. 123–167). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  8. Amabile, T. M., Conte, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andersen, J. A. (2010). Public Versus Private Managers: How Public and Private Managers Differ in Leadership Behavior. Public Administration Review, 70(1), 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andersen, J. (2012). Public Managers: Their Behavior, Their Change Potential and the Behavior of Women and Men in Public Organizations. Uprava, 10(3), 25–38.Google Scholar
  11. Andersen, J. A., & Hansson, P. H. (2011). At the End of the Road? On Differences Between Women and Men in Leadership Behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(5), 328–441.Google Scholar
  12. Angle, H. (1989). Psychology and Organizational Innovation. In A. Van de Ven & M. Poole (Eds.), Research on the Management of Innovation: The Minnesota Studies (pp. 135–170). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  13. Archer, D., & Cameron, A. (2013). Collaborative Leadership: Building Relationships, Handling Conflict and Sharing Control (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Argyris, C. (2004). On Organizational Learning (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Business.Google Scholar
  15. Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1995). Individual Consideration Viewed at Multiple Levels of Analysis: A Multi-Level Framework for Examining the Diffusion of Transformational Leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Avolio, B. J., Zhu, B., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Puja, B. (2004). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment: Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment and Moderating Role of Structural Distance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(8), 951–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barker, R. A. (1997). How Can We Train Leaders if We Do Not Know What Leadership Is? Human Relations, 50(4), 343–362.Google Scholar
  19. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational Leadership (2nd ed.). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  21. Behn, R. (1998). What Right Do Public Managers Have to Lead? Public Administration Review, 58(3), 209–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Belle, N. (2014). Leading to Make a Difference: A Field Experiment on the Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership, Perceived Social Impact, and Public Service Motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory, 24(1), 109–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bennis, W. (1984). Where Have All the Leaders Gone? In W. E. Rosenbach & R. L. Taylor (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Leadership (2nd ed., pp. 5–23). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  24. Berman, E., & Kim, C. (2010). Creativity Management in Public Organizations: Jumpstarting Innovation. Public Performance & Management Review, 33, 619–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Berry, F. S., & Wechsler, B. (1995). State Agencies’ Experience with Strategic Planning: Findings from a National Survey. Public Administration Review, 55(92), 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blake, R. R., & Mouton, J. S. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  27. Boin, A., & Hart, P. (2003). Public Leadership in Times of Crisis: Mission Impossible? Public Administration Review, 63(5), 544–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and Leadership in Organizations. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Bryson, J. (1988). Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  31. Burrell, D. N. (2007). Non-traditional Leadership Training for Public Managers. Public Manager, 36(3), 62–66.Google Scholar
  32. Carey, M. (1992). Transformational Leadership and the Fundamental Option for Self-Transcendence. Leadership Quarterly, 3(2), 217–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ciullla, J. B. (1998). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership. Westoprt: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  34. Clarke, M. C., & Payne, R. L. (1997). The Nature and Structure of Workers’ Trust in Management. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(1), 205–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cohen, M. D., March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1972). A Garbage-Can Model of Organizational Choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, A. R., Fink, S. L., Gadon, H., & Willits, R. D. (1984). Effective Behavior in Organizations. Homewood: Irwin.Google Scholar
  37. Comfort, L. K. (1988). Managing Disasters: Strategies and Policy Perspectives. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Currie, G., & Lockett, A. (2007). A Critique of Transformational Leadership: Moral, Professional and Contingent Dimensions of Leadership Within Public Services Organizations. Human Relations, 60(2), 341–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Daft, R. L. (1978). A Dual Core Model of Organizational Innovation. Academy of Management Journal, 21(2), 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dimock, M. E. (1991). The New American Political Economy: A Synthesis of Politics and Economics. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  41. Dror, Y. (1987). Retrofitting the Central Mind of Government. Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, 69(1), 79–107.Google Scholar
  42. Fernandez, S., & Rainey, H. G. (2006). Managing Successful Organizational Change in the Public Sector. Public Administration Review, 66(2), 168–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferrell, O., & Friedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making (9th ed.). Mason: South-Western College Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Foster, J. B. (2009). A Failed System: The World Crisis of Capitalist Globalization and Its Impact on China. Monthly Review, 60(10), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fritsche, D. (2000). Ethical Climate and the Ethical Dimensions of Ethical Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics, 24(1), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gemmil, G., & Oakley, J. (1992). Leadership: An Alienating Social Myth? Human Relations, 45(2), 113–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2001). Primal Leadership: The Hidden Driver of Great Performance. Harvard Business Review, 79, 43–53.Google Scholar
  48. Graham, J. W. (1991). Servant Leadership in Organizations: Inspirational and Moral. Leadership Quarterly, 2(1), 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gudykunst, W. B., Ting-Toomey, S., & Chua, E. (1988). Culture and Interpersonnel Communication. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  50. Hackman, M. Z., & Johnson, C. E. (2013). (2004), Leadership: A Communication Perspective (4th ed.). Long Grove: Waveland.Google Scholar
  51. Hart, D. (1984). The Virtuous Citizen, the Honorable Bureaucrat, and Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 44(Special Issue), 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hart, P., & Kroon, M. B. R. (1997). Groupthink in Government: Pathologies of Small-Group Decision Making. In J. Garnett & A. Kouzmin (Eds.), Handbook of Administrative Communication (pp. 101–139). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  53. Hartley, J., & Allison, M. (2000). The Role of Leadership in Modernization and Improvement of Public Services. Public Money and Management, 20(2), 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hartman, J., & Khademian, A. M. (2010). Culture Change Refined and Revitalized: The Road Show and Guides to Pragmatic Action. Public Administration Review, 70(6), 845–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership Without Easy Answers. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W., Jr. (2007). Organizational Behavior. Mason: Thomson/South-Western.Google Scholar
  57. Hennessey, J. T. (1998). Reinventing Government: Does Leadership Make the Difference? Public Administration Review, 58(6), 522–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1977). Management of Organization Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  59. Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural Constraints in Management Theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(2), 81–94.Google Scholar
  60. Holmes, M. (2012). Raising the Ranks of Public Sector Leaders: Results of a National Survey of Executive Masters of Public Administration Programs. Public Personnel Management, 41(3), 449–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The Globe Study in 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  62. Janis, I., & Mann, L. (1977). Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  63. Jarman, A. M. G., & Kouzmin, A. (1990). Decision Pathways from Crisis: A Contingency Theory Simulation Heuristic for the Challenger Shuttle Disaster (1983–88). Contemporary Crises: Law, Crime, and Social Policy, 14, 399–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jaskyte, K. (2012). Boards of Directors and Innovation in Nonprofit Organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 22(4), 439–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Joyce, P. (2015). Strategic Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Jung, T., Scott, T., Davies, H. T. O., Bower, P., Whalley, D., McNally, R., & Mannion, R. (2009). Instruments for Exploring Organizational Culture: A Review of the Literature. Public Administration Review, 69, 1087–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kakabadse, A., Korac, K., Korac, N., & Myers, A. (1996). Leadership and the Public Sector: An Internationally Comparative Benchmarking Analysis: Summary. Public Administration and Development, 16(4), 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Katz, R. (1955). Skills of an Effective Administrator. Harvard Business Review, 33(1), 33–42.Google Scholar
  69. Keeler, J. (1993). Opening the Window for Reform: Mandates, Crises, and Extraordinary Policymaking. Comparative Political Studies, 25(4), 433–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kim, C. (2009). Developing Effective Leadership Skills. Public Administration Review, 69(3), 547–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kim, S., & Yoon, G. (2015). An Innovation-Driven Culture in Local Government: Do Senior Manager’s Transformational Leadership and the Climate for Creativity Matter? Public Personnel Management, 44(2), 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Klein, N. (2007). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Allen Lane/Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  73. Kolthoff, E., Erakovich, R., & Lasthuizen, K. (2010). Comparative Analysis of Ethical Leadership and Ethical Culture in Local Government: The USA, The Netherlands, Montenegro and Serbia. International Journal of Public Management, 23(7), 596–612.Google Scholar
  74. Korac-Boisvert, N., & Kouzmin, A. (1994). The Dark Side of Info-Age Social Networks in Public Organizations and Creeping Crises. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 16, 57–82.Google Scholar
  75. Korac-Boisvert, N., & Kouzmin, A. (1995). Transcending Soft-Core IT Disasters in Public Sector Organizations. Information Infrastructure and Policy, 4, 131–161.Google Scholar
  76. Korac-Kakabadse, N., Kouzmin, A., & Kakabadse, A. (2002). Revisiting Crises from a Resource Distribution Perspective: Learning for Local Government. Local Governance, 28, 35–61.Google Scholar
  77. Kouzmin, A., & Dixon, J. (2006). Neoliberal Economics, Public Domains, and Organizations: Is There Any Organizational Design After “Privatization?”. In T. D. Lynch & P. L. Cruise (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Theory and Management: The Philosophical Approach (pp. 667–728). Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  78. Kouzmin, A., & Jarman, A. M. G. (1989). Crisis Decision Making: Towards a Contingent Decision-Path Perspective. In U. Rosenthal, M. T. Charles, & P. Hart (Eds.), Coping with Crises: The Management of Disasters, Riots, and Terrorism (pp. 397–435). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  79. Kouzmin, A., & Jarman, A. M. G. (2004). Policy Advice as Crisis: A Political Redefinition of Crisis Managmement. International Studies Review, 6(1), 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-Organization Fit: An Integrative Review of Its Conceptualizations, Measurement, and Implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), –49.Google Scholar
  81. Kumar, R., Anjum, B., & Sinha, A. (2011). Cross-cultural Interactions and Leadership Behavior. Researchers World, 2(3), 151–160.Google Scholar
  82. Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing Leadership for Changing Times. Philadelphia: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Masa’deh, R. (Moh’d Taisir), Maqableh, M. M., & Karajeh, H. (2014). Theoretical Perspective on the Relationship Between Leadership Development, Knowledge Management Capability and Firm Performance. Asian Social Science, 10(6), 128–137.Google Scholar
  84. Moynihan, D. P., Pandey, S. K., & Wright, B. E. (2012). Setting the Table: How Transformational Leadership Fosters Performance Information Use. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 22, 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Newell, T. (2012). The Trusted Leader. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  86. Newman, J. (2001). Modernising Governance. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  88. Nutt, P. C. (1989). Making Tough Decisions: Tactics for Improving Managerial Decision Making. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  89. O’Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and Organizational Culture: A Profile Comparison Approach to Assessing Person–Organization Fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Parker, R., & Bradley, L. (2000). Organizational Culture in the Public Sector: Evidence from Six Organizations. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 13, 125–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pate, J., Beaumont, P., & Stewart, S. (2007). Trust in Senior Management in the Public Sector. Employee Relations, 29(5), 458–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pestoff, V., Brandsen, T., & Verschure, B. (2012). New Public Governance, the Third Sector, and Coproduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. Pickering, J., & Brokaw, G. S. (2007). Building High Performance Organizations. In T. Newell, G. Reeher, & P. Ronayne (Eds.), The Trusted Leader Building the Relationships That Make Government Work (pp. 170–200). Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  94. Rainey, H. G., & Bozeman, B. (2000). Comparing Public and Private Organizations: Empirical Research and the Power of the a Priori. Journal of Public Administration Research und Theory, 10(2), 447–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Reichers, A. E., & Schneider, B. (1990). Climate and Culture: An Evolution of Constructs. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organization Climate, and Culture (pp. 5–39). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  96. Robinson, D. A., & Harvey, M. (2008). Global Leadership in a Culturally Diverse World. Management Decision, 46(3), 466–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenthal, U., Hart, P., & Charles, M. T. (1989). The World of Crisis Management. In U. Rosenthal, M. T. Charles, & P. Hart (Eds.), Coping with Crisis: The Management of Disasters, Riots, and Terrorism (pp. 3–33). Springfield: Charles. C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  98. Rost, J. C. (1990). Leadership for the Twenty First Century. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  99. Rost, J. C. (1991). Leadership for the Twenty-First Century. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  100. Sarros, J. C., Gray, J., & Densten, I. L. (2002). Leadership and Its Impact on Organizational Culture. International Journal of Business Studies, 10(2), 1–26.Google Scholar
  101. Saul, J. R. (2005). The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  102. Scahill, J. (2007). Blackwater: The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Army. London: Serpent’s Tail.Google Scholar
  103. Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  104. Schermerhon, J. R., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. (2005). Organizational Behavior (9th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  105. Schoen, D. E. (2013). The Failure of Political Leadership: The End of Authority: How a Loss of Legitimacy and Broken Trust Are Endangering Our Future. Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  106. Short, T. (2012). The Importance of Balance in Leadership Development. Human Resource Management International Digest, 20(4), 36–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in Action: Social Science Base of Administrative Theory. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  108. Vardi, Y. (2001). The Effects of Organizational Culture and Ethical Climate on Misconduct at Work. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(4), 325–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Verkuil, P. R. (2007). Outsourcing Sovereignty: Why Privatization of Government Functions Threatens Democracy and What We Can Do About It. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Victor, B., & Cullen, J. B. (1988). The Organizational Bases of Ethical Work Climates. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(1), 101–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Villoria, M., & Iglesias, A. (2011). Leadership in Public Management: Some Theoretical and Methodological Considerations. Innovar, 21(42), 175–189.Google Scholar
  112. Vogel, R., & Masal, D. (2012). Publicness, Motivation, and Leadership: The Dark Side of Private Management Concepts in the Public Sector. Administrative Management, 19(1), 6–12.Google Scholar
  113. Yukl, G. (1994). Leadership in Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  114. Zekos, G. I. (2004). Ethics Versus Corruption in Globalization. The Journal of Management Development, 23(7–8), 631–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haroon A. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Henderson State UniversityArkadelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations