A Joint Human/Machine Process for Coding Events and Conflict Drivers

  • Bradford Heap
  • Alfred Krzywicki
  • Susanne Schmeidl
  • Wayne Wobcke
  • Michael Bain
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10604)


Constructing datasets to analyse the progression of conflicts has been a longstanding objective of peace and conflict studies research. In essence, the problem is to reliably extract relevant text snippets and code (annotate) them using an ontology that is meaningful to social scientists. Such an ontology usually characterizes either types of violent events (killing, bombing, etc.), and/or the underlying drivers of conflict, themselves hierarchically structured, for example security, governance and economics, subdivided into conflict-specific indicators. Numerous coding approaches have been proposed in the social science literature, ranging from fully automated “machine” coding to human coding. Machine coding is highly error prone, especially for labelling complex drivers, and suffers from extraction of duplicated events, but human coding is expensive, and suffers from inconsistency between annotators; thus hybrid approaches are required. In this paper, we analyse experimentally how human input can most effectively be used in a hybrid system to complement machine coding. Using two newly created real-world datasets, we show that machine learning methods improve on rule-based automated coding for filtering large volumes of input, while human verification of relevant/irrelevant text leads to improved performance of machine learning for predicting multiple labels in the ontology.



This work was supported by Data to Decisions Cooperative Research Centre. We are grateful to Josie Gardner for labelling the ICG DRC dataset, and to Michael Burnside and Kaitlyn Hedditch for coding the AfPak event data.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradford Heap
    • 1
  • Alfred Krzywicki
    • 1
  • Susanne Schmeidl
    • 2
  • Wayne Wobcke
    • 1
  • Michael Bain
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Social SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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