Advertisement

Yeast Genetic Manipulation

  • Graham G. Stewart
Chapter
Part of the The Yeast Handbook book series (YEASTHDB)

Abstract

The importance of the molecular biology of S. cerevisiae is closely related species is well documented. This yeast was the first microorganism to be domesticated for the production of fermented food and beverages and to be described as a living biochemical agent for biological transformations. In 1996, the complete genome of S. cerevisiae haploid strain became the first eukaryote genome to be fully sequenced. Its 16 chromosomes encode approximately 6000 genes, and approximately 5000 of them are individually non-essential to the yeast cell. This publicly available genome sequence has prepared the way to build the first systematic collection of deletion mutants, which enables high-throughput functional genetic experiments. In 2014, S. cerevisiae became the first eukaryote to be equipped with a functional chromosome. S. cerevisiae has three basic mating types – a, α and a/α. Most laboratory strains are haploid or diploid, whereas industrial yeast strains (brewing, distilling, baking and wine) are predominantly diploid, aneuploid and polyploidy. Polyploid strains are genetically more stable and less susceptible to mutational forces than either haploid or diploid strains, thus enabling such strains to be used by brewers with a high degree of confidence. Cells of polyploid (aneuploid) brewing strains – ale and lager – sporulate poorly, and asci containing four spores rarely develop. Moreover, spore viabilities are low, and the spores that are viable often lack the ability to mate. As a consequence, alternative methods of genetic manipulation such as protoplast (spheroplast) fusion and rare mating that introduces foreign genetic material into the genome have been required to facilitate strain improvement. Unlike the other techniques discussed, genetic engineering (recombinant DNA-rDNA) affords the possibility of introducing additional factors. Also, genetic engineering methods permit the transfer of genetic information between completely unrelated organisms. Consequently, the recipient organism becomes able to produce heterologous proteins or peptides that are not produced by their mated constituents. This provides considerable scope for the transfer of new constituents into industrial yeast strains.

References

  1. Alper H, Fischer C, Nevoigt E, Stephanopoulos G (2005) Tuning genetic control through promoter engineering. PNAS 102:12678–12683PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JE, Martin PA (1975) The sporulation and mating of brewing yeasts. J Inst Brew 81:242–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews J, Gilliland RB (1952) Super-attenuation of beer: a study of three organisms capable of causing abnormal attenuations. J Inst Brew 58:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anné J, Peberdy JF (1976) Induced fusion of fungal protoplasts following treatment with polyethylene glycol. J Gen Microbiol 92:413–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annibali N (2011) Process for obtaining aspart insulin using a Pichia pastoris yeast strain. Patent No. US20110117600A1Google Scholar
  6. Bae SJ, Kim S, Hahn JS (2016) Efficient production of acetoin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and expression of NADH oxidase. Sci Rep 6:27667PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bamforth CW (2016) Brewing materials and processes. Elsevier, Boston, pp 151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belton JM, McCord RP, Gibcus JH, Naumova N, Zhan Y, Dekker J (2012) Hi-C: comprehensive technique to capture the conformation of genomes. Methods 58:268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilinski CA, Russell I, Stewart GG (1986) Analysis of sporulation in brewer’s yeast: induction of tetrad formation. J Inst Brew 92:594–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilinski CA, Russell I, Stewart GG (1987) Physiological requirements for induction of sporulation in lager yeast. J Inst Brew 93:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brueggemann M, Zou X (2004) Spheroplast fusion. Patent No. WO2004101802 A2Google Scholar
  12. Bussey H (1991) K1 killer toxin, a pore-forming protein from yeast. Mol Microbiol 5:2339–2343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buzdar MA, Chi Z, Wang Q, Hua MX, Chi ZM (2011) Production, purification, and characterization of a novel killer toxin from Kluyveromyces siamensis against a pathogenic yeast in crab. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:1571–1579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chi ZM, Liu GM, Zhao SF, Li J, Peng Y (2010) Marine yeasts as biocontrol agents and producers of bio-products. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:1227–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chlup PH, Stewart GG (2011) Centrifuges in brewing. MBAA Tech Q 48:46–50Google Scholar
  16. Class III Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Intervention Board 1993 to 1994 – executive agency: supply estimates https://www.google.co.uk/#q=Ministry+of+agriculture+1993
  17. Cohen SN, Chang AC, Boyer HW, Helling RB (1973) Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 70:3240–3244PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conde J, Fink GR (1976) A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae defective for nuclear fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73:3651–3655PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crandall MA, Egel R, Mackay VL (1977) Physiology of mating in three yeasts. Adv Microb Physiol 15:307–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cregg JM, Tolstorukov I, Kusari A, Sunga J, Madden K, Chappell T (2009) Expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Methods Enzymol 463:169–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crumplen RM, D’Amore T, Russell I, Stewart GG (1990) The use of spheroplast fusion to improve yeast osmotolerance. J Am Soc Brew Chem 48:58–61Google Scholar
  22. Curran BPG, Bugeja VC (1996) Protoplast fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast Protoc Methods Cell Mol Biol 53:45–49Google Scholar
  23. Daly R, Hearn MT (2005) Expression of heterologous proteins in Pichia pastoris: a useful experimental tool in protein engineering and production. J Mol Recogn 18:119–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dimauro S, Davidzon G (2005) Mitochondrial DNA and disease. Ann Med 37:222–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ephrussi B, Slonimski PP (1955) Subcellular units involved in the synthesis of respiratory enzymes in yeast. Nature 176(4495):1207–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ephrussi B, Jakob H, Grandchamp S (1966) Etudes sur la suppressivite des mutants a deficience respiratoire de la levure. 11. Etapesde la mutation grande en petite provoquee par le facteur suppressif. Genetics 54:1–29PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Ernandes JR, D’Amore T, Russell I, Stewart GG (1993a) Regulation of glucose and maltose transport in strains of Saccharomyces. J lndust Microbiol 9:127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ernandes JR, Williams JW, Russell I, Stewart GG (1993b) Effect of yeast adaptation to maltose utilization on sugar uptake during the fermentation of brewer's wort. J Inst Brew 99:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ernandes JR, Williams JW, Russell I, Stewart GG (1993c) Respiratory deficiency in brewing yeast strains – effects on fermentation, flocculation, and beer flavor components. J Am Soc Brew Chem 51:16–20Google Scholar
  30. Erratt JA, Stewart GG (1978) Genetic and biochemical studies on yeast strains able to utilize dextrins. J Am Soc Brew Chem 36:151–161Google Scholar
  31. Erratt JA, Stewart GG (1981a) Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains. Dev Ind Microbiol 22:577–586Google Scholar
  32. Erratt JA, Stewart GG (1981b) Genetic and biochemical studies on glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus. In: Stewart G, Russell I (eds) Advances in biotechnology. Pergamon Press, Toronto, pp 177–183Google Scholar
  33. Esposito RE, Klapholz S (1981) Meiosis and ascospore development. In: Strathern JN, Jones EW, Broach JR (eds) The molecular biology of the yeast Saccharomyces: life cycle and inheritance. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp 211–287Google Scholar
  34. Ferenczy L, Kevei F, Szegedi M, Franko A, Rojik I (1976) Factors affecting high frequency fungal protoplast fusion. Experientia 32:1156–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fink GR, Styles CA (1972) Curing of a killer factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 69:2846–2849PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galanie S, Thodey K, Trenchard IJ, Interrante MF, Smolke CD (2015) Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast. Science 349(6252):1095–1100PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibson B, Liti G (2015) Saccharomyces pastorianus: genomic insights inspiring innovation for industry. Yeast 32:17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gibson B, Geertman JMA, Hittinger CT, Krogerus K, Libkind D, Louis EJ, Magalhães F, Sampaio JP (2017) New yeasts – new brews: modern approaches to brewing yeast design and development. FEMS Yeast Res 17:216–230Google Scholar
  39. Gietz RD, Woods RA (2001) Genetic transformation of yeast. Bio Techniques 30:816–831Google Scholar
  40. Gietz RD, Schiestl RH, Willems AR, Woods RA (1995) Studies on the transformation of intact yeast cells by the LiAc/SS-DNA/PEG procedure. Yeast 11:355–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilliland RB (1951) The flocculation characteristics of brewing yeasts during fermentation. In: Proceedings of the European Brewery Convention Congress, Brighton, pp 35–58Google Scholar
  42. Gilliland RB (1966) Saccharomyces diastaticus – a starch fermenting yeast. Wellerstein Lab Commun 17:165–176Google Scholar
  43. Gjermansen C, Sigsgaard P (1981) Construction of a hybrid brewing strain of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis by mating of meiotic segregants. Carlsb Res Commun 46:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goffeau A, Barrell BG, Bussey H, Davis RW, Dujon B, Feldmann H, Galibert F, Hoheisel JD, Jacq C, Johnston M, Louis EJ, Mewes HW, Murakami Y, Philippsen P, Tettelin H, Oliver SG (1996) Life with 6000 genes. Science 274(5287):546, 563–7
  45. Gunge N, Nakatomi Y (1972) Genetic mechanisms of rare matings of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterozygous for mating type. Genetics 70:41–58PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Halme A, Bumgarner S, Styles C, Fink GR (2004) Genetic and epigenetic regulation of the FLO gene family generates cell-surface variation in yeast. Cell 116:405–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hammond JRM (1996) Yeast genetics. In: Priest FG, Campbell I (eds) Brewing microbiology. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 45–82Google Scholar
  48. Hammond J (2012) Brewing with genetically modified amylolytic yeast, Chap 7. In: Harlander S, Roller S (eds) Genetic modification in the food industry: a strategy for food quality improvement. Springer Science & Business Media, pp 129–157Google Scholar
  49. Hammond JRM, Eckersley KW (1984) Fermentation properties of brewing yeast with killer character. J Inst Brew 90:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hayama Y, Fukuda Y, Kawai S, Hashimoto W, Murata K (2002) Extremely simple, rapid and highly efficient method for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glutathione and early lag phase cells. J Biosci Bioeng 94:166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinnen A, Hicks JB, Fink GR (1978) Transformation of yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75:1929–1933PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hou J, Tyo KE, Liu Z, Petranovic D, Nielsen J (2012) Metabolic engineering of recombinant protein secretion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 12:491–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jacob M, Jaros D, Rohm H (2011) Recent advances in milk clotting enzymes. Int J Dairy Technol 64:14–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnston JR (1965) Breeding yeasts for brewing. I. Isolation of breeding strains. J Inst Brew 71:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kao KN, Michayluk MR (1974) A method for high-frequency intergeneric fusion of plant protoplasts. Planta 115:355–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karas BJ, Jablanovic J, Sun L, Ma L, Goldgof JM, Stam J, Ramon A, Manary MJ, Winzeler EA, Venter JC, Weyman PD, Gibson DG, Glass JI, Hutchison CA III, Smith HO, Suzuki Y (2013) Direct transfer of whole genomes from bacteria to yeast. Nat Methods 10:410–412PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Karas BJ, Jablanovic J, Irvine E, Sun L, Ma L, Weyman PD, Gibson DG, Glass JI, Venter JC, Hutchison CA III, Smith HO, Suzuki Y (2014) Transferring whole genomes from bacteria to yeast spheroplasts using entire bacterial cells to reduce DNA shearing. Nat Protoc 9:743–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kavšček M, Stražar M, Curk T, Natter K, Petrovič U (2015) Yeast as a cell factory: current state and perspectives. Microb Cell Factor 94:201514Google Scholar
  59. Kawai S, Hashimoto W, Murata K (2010) Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from other fungi: methods and possible underlying mechanisms. Bioeng Bugs 1:395–403PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kielland-Brandt MC, Nilsson-Tillgren T, Holmberg S, Petersen JGL, Svenningsen BA (1979) Transformation of yeast without the use of foreign DNA. Carlsb Res Commun 44:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim IK, Roldão A, Siewers V, Nielsen J (2012) A systems-level approach for metabolic engineering of yeast cell factories. FEMS Yeast Res 12:228–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krogerus K, Gibson BR (2013) Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer’s wort. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6919–6930PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lacroix B, Citovsky V (2016) Transfer of DNA from bacteria to eukaryotes. MBio 7:e 00863-16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li C, Li J, Wang G, Li X (2016) Heterologous biosynthesis of artemisinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Appl Microbiol 120:1466–1478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu GL, Zhe C, Wang GY, Wang ZP, Li Y, Chi ZM (2015) Yeast killer toxins, molecular mechanisms of their action and their applications. Crit Rev Biotechnol 35:222–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Magliani W, Conti S, Travassos LR, Polonelli L (2008) From yeast killer toxins to antibiobodies and beyond. FEMS Microbiol Lett 288:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martinez LA, Naguibneva I, Lehrmann H, Vervisch A, Tchénio T, Lozano G, Harel-Bellan A (2002) Synthetic small inhibiting RNAs: efficient tools to inactivate oncogenic mutations and restore pathways. In: Vogt PK (ed) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, p 53Google Scholar
  68. Meaden PG (1996) Yeast genome now completely sequenced. Ferment 9:213–214Google Scholar
  69. Meilgaard MC (1975a) Aroma volatiles in beer: purification, flavour, threshold and interaction. In: Drawert F (ed) Geruch und Geschmacksstoffe. Verlag Hans Carl, Nurnberg, pp 211–254Google Scholar
  70. Meilgaard MC (1975b) Flavor chemistry of beer. Part I. Flavor interaction between principal volatiles. MBAA Tech Q 12:107–117Google Scholar
  71. Molzahn SW (1977) A new approach to the application of genetics to brewing yeast. J Am Soc Brew Chem 35:54–59Google Scholar
  72. Mullis KB, Erlich HA, Arnheim N, Horn GT, Saiki RK, Scharf SJ (1987) Process for amplifying, detecting, and/or cloning nucleic acid sequences. Patent No. US4683195 AGoogle Scholar
  73. Nakagawe A, Matsumura E, Koyanagi T, Katayama T, Kawano N, Yoshimatsu K, Yamamoto K, Kumagai H, Sato F, Minami H (2016) Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli. Nat Commun 7:10390–10396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Naumov GI, Li C-F (2011) Species specificity of the action of Zygowilliopsis californica killer toxins on Saccharomyces yeasts: investigation of the Taiwanese populations. Mikol Fitopatol 45:332–336Google Scholar
  75. Naumov GI, Kondratieva VI, Naumova ES, Chen G-Y, Li C-F (2011) Polymorphism and species specificity of killer activity formation in the yeast Zygowilliopsis californica. Biotekhnologiya 3:29–33Google Scholar
  76. Nevoigt E, Fischer C, Mucha O, Matthaus F, Stahl U, Stephanopoulos G (2007) Engineering promoter regulation. Biotechnol Bioeng 96:550–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nielsen J (2013) Production of biopharmaceutical proteins by yeast: advances through metabolic engineering. Bioengineered 4:207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nielsen J (2015) Yeast cell factories on the horizon. Science 349(6252):1050–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oliver SG (1996a) From DNA sequence to biological function. Nature 379:597–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oliver SG (1996b) A network approach to the systematic analysis of yeast gene function. Trends Genet 12:241–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peberdy JF, Eyssen H, Anné J (1977) Interspecific hybridisation between Penicillium chrysogenum and Pencillium cyaneo-fulvum following protoplast fusion. Mol Gen Genet 157:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Peris D, Sylvester K, Libkind D, Gonçalves P, Sampaio JP, Alexander WG, Hittinger CT (2014) Population structure and reticulate evolution of Saccharomyces eubayanus and its lager-brewing hybrids. Mol Ecol 23:2031–2045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Petranovic D, Tyo K, Vemuri GN, Nielsen J (2010) Prospects of yeast systems biology for human health: integrating lipid, protein and energy metabolism. FEMS Yeast Res 10:1046–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pomper S, Burkholder PR (1949) Studies on the biochemical genetics of yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 35:456–464PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pontecorvo G, Kafer E (1958) Genetic analysis based on mitotic recombination. Adv Genet 9:71–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pray LA (2008) Discovery of DNA structure and function: Watson and Crick. Nat Educ 1:100Google Scholar
  87. Pretorius IS (2016) Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast. Crit Rev Biotechnol 37:112–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pretorius IS, du Toit MD, van Rensburg P (2003) Designer yeasts for the fermentation industry of the 21st century. Food Technol Biotechnol 41:3–10Google Scholar
  89. Reinhardt K, Dowling DK, Morrow EH (2013) Medicine. Mitochondrial replacement, evolution, and the clinic. Science 341:1345–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ro DK, Paradise EM, Ouellet M, Fisher KJ, Newman KL, Ndungu JM, Ho KA, Eachus RA, Ham TS, Kirby J, Chang MCY, Withers ST, Shiba Y, Sarpong R, Keasling JD (2006) Production of the antimalarial drug precursor artemisinic acid in engineered yeast. Nature 440:940–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rosano GL, Ceccarelli EA (2014) Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges. Front Microbiol 5:172PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Russell I, Stewart GG (1979) Spheroplast fusion of brewer’s yeast strains. J Inst Brew 85:95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Russell I, Stewart GG (1980) Transformation of maltotriose uptake ability into a haploid strain of Saccharomyces spp. J Inst Brew 86:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Russell I, Stewart GG (1981) Liquid nitrogen storage of yeast cultures compared to more traditional storage methods. J Am Soc Brew Chem 39:19–24Google Scholar
  95. Russell I, Stewart GG (1985) Valuable techniques in the genetic manipulation of industrial yeast strains. J Am Soc Brew Chem 43:84–90Google Scholar
  96. Russell I, Stewart GG (2014) Whisky: technology, production and marketing. Academic (Elsevier), Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  97. Saerens SM, Duong CT, Nevoigt E (2010) Genetic improvement of brewer’s yeast: current state, perspectives and limits. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:1195–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schmitt MJ, Breining F (2002) The viral killer system in yeast: from molecular biology to application. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26:257–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sherman F (1998) An introduction to the genetics and molecular biology of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. http://dbburmcrochester.edu/labs/sherman_f/yeast/
  100. Sherman F, Hicks J (1991) Micromanipulation and dissection of asci. Methods Enzymol 194:21–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shi S, Chen T, Zhang Z, Chen X, Zhao X (2009) Transcriptome analysis guided metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for riboflavin production. Metab Eng 11:243–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Silhankova L, Mostek J, Savel J, Solinova H (1970) Respiratory deficient mutants of bottom brewer’s yeast II technological properties of some RD mutants. J Inst Brew 76:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sipiczki M, Ferenczy L (1977a) Protoplast fusion of Schizosaccharomyces pombe auxotrophic mutants of identical mating-type. Mol Gen Genet 151:7781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sipiczki M, Ferenczy L (1977b) Fusion of Rhodosporidiuin (Rhodotorula) protoplasts. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2:203–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sipiczki M, Heyer WD, Kohli J (1985) Preparation and regeneration of protoplasts and spheroplasts for fusion and transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Curr Microbiol 12:169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Skatrud PL, Jaeck DM, Kot EJ, Helbert JR (1980) Fusion of Saccharomyces uvarum with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: genetic manipulation and reconstruction of a brewers yeast. J Am Soc Brew Chem 38:49–53Google Scholar
  107. Soares EV (2010) Flocculation in Saccharomyces: a review. J Appl Microbiol 110:1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Speers A (2016) Brewing fundamentals. Part 3: Yeast settling—flocculation. MBAA Tech Q 53:17–22Google Scholar
  109. Spencer JFT, Spencer DM (1977) Hybridization of non-sporulating and weakly sporulating strains of brewer’s yeasts. J Inst Brew 83:287–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Spencer JF, Spencer DM (1996) Rare-mating and cytoduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods Mol Biol 53:39–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Spencer JFT, Laud P, Spencer DM (1980) The use of mitochondrial mutant sin the isolation of hybrids involving industrial yeast strains. Mol Gen Genet 178:651–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Steensels J, Snoek T, Meersman E, Nicolino MP, Voordeckers K, Verstrepen KJ (2014) Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity. FEMS Microbiol Rev 38:947–995PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stephanopoulos G (2012) Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. ACS Synth Biol 1:514–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stewart GG (1973) Recent developments in the characterization of brewery yeast strains. MBAA Tech Q 9:183–191Google Scholar
  115. Stewart GG (1975) Yeast flocculation – practical implications and experimental findings. Brew Dig 50:42–62Google Scholar
  116. Stewart GG (1981) The genetic manipulation of industrial yeast strains. Can J Microbiol 27:973–990 (Canadian Society for Microbiology, Hotpack Award Lecture)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stewart GG (2002) Yeast: the most important microorganism in use. Food Essent 1:2–4Google Scholar
  118. Stewart GG (2009) The IBD Horace Brown Medal Lecture – forty years of brewing research. J Inst Brew 115:3–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stewart GG (2010) MBAA Award of Merit Lecture. A love affair with yeast. MBAA Tech Q 47:4–11Google Scholar
  120. Stewart GG (2014a) Yeast mitochondria – their influence on brewer’s yeast fermentation and medical research. MBAA Tech Q 51:3–11Google Scholar
  121. Stewart GG (2014b) Brewing intensification. The American Society for Brewing Chemists, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  122. Stewart GG (2014c) The concept of nature – nurture applied to brewer’s yeast and wort fermentations. MBAA, Tech Q 51:69–80Google Scholar
  123. Stewart GG, Russell I (1977) The identification, characterization, and mapping of a gene for flocculation in Saccharomyces sp. Can J Microbiol 23:441–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stewart GG, Russell I (1979) Current use of the “new” genetics in research and development of brewer’s yeast strains. In: Proceedings of the 17th European Brewery Convention Congress, Berlin (West) EBC/DSW, Dordrecht, pp 475–490Google Scholar
  125. Stewart GG, Russell I (2009) An introduction to brewing science and technology, Series lll, Brewer’s yeast, 2nd edn. The Institute of Brewing and Distilling, London. isbn:0900498-13-8Google Scholar
  126. Stewart GG, Panchal CJ, Russell I (1983) Current developments in the genetic manipulation of brewing yeast strains – a review. J Inst Brew 89:170–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stewart GG, Jones RM, Russell I (1985) The use of derepressed yeast mutants in the fermentation of brewery wort. In: Proceedings of the 20th European Brewery Convention Congress, Helsinki. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 243–250Google Scholar
  128. Stewart GG, Russell I, Panchal CJ (1986) Genetically stable allopolyploid somatic fusion product useful in the production of fuel alcohols. Canadian Patent 1,199,593Google Scholar
  129. Stewart GG, Jones RM, Russell I (2013) 125th anniversary review – developments in brewing and distilling yeast strains. J Inst Brew 119:202–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stewart GG, Maskell DL, Speers A (2016) Brewing fundamentals – fermentation. MBAA Tech Q 53:2–22Google Scholar
  131. Stovicek V, Holkenbrink C, Borodina I (2017) CRISPR/Cas system for yeast genome engineering: advances and applications. FEMS Yeast Res 17:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Svoboda A (1978) Fusion of yeast protoplasts induced by polyethylene glycol. J Gen Microbiol 109:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Swinnen S, Thevelein JM, Nevoigt E (2012) Genetic mapping of quantitative phenotypic traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 12:215–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tamaki H (1978) Genetic studies of the ability to ferment starch in Saccharomyces: gene polymorphism. Mol Gen Genet 164:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tao X, Zheng D, Liu T, Wang P, Zhao W, Zhu M, Jiang X, Zhao Y, Wu X (2012) A novel strategy to construct yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for very high gravity fermentation. PLoS One 7(2):e31235PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Teunissen AWRH, Steensma HY (1995) Review: The dominant flocculation genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitute a new subtelomeric gene family. Yeast 11:1001–1013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Thorne RSW (1951) Some aspects of yeast flocculence. In: Proceedings of the European Brewery Convention Congress, Brighton, pp 21–30Google Scholar
  138. Tyo KE, Kocharin K, Nielsen J (2010) Toward design-based engineering of industrial microbes. Curr Opin Microbiol 13:255–262PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Van Mulders SE, Christianen E, Saerens SMG, Daenen L, Verbelen PJ, Willaert R, Verstrepen KJ, Delvaux FR (2009) Phenotypic diversity of Flo protein family-mediated adhesion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res 9:178–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. van Solingen P, van der Plaat JB (1977) Fusion of yeast spheroplasts. J Bacteriol 130:946–947PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Verstrepen KJ, Derdelinckx G, Delvaux FR, Winderickx J, Thevelein JM, Bauer FF, Pretorius IS (2001) Late fermentation expression of FLO1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Am Soc Brew Chem 59:69–76Google Scholar
  142. Walsh G (2010) Biopharmaceutical benchmarks. Nat Biotechnol 28:917–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Walters VL (2001) Conjugation between bacterial and mammalian cells. Nat Genet 29:375–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wang L, Yue L, Chi ZM, Wang X (2008) Marine killer yeasts active against a yeast strain pathogenic to crab Portunus trituberculatus. Dis Aquat Org 80:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wang XX, Chi ZM, Peng Y (2012) Purification, characterization and gene cloning of the killer toxin produced by the marine-derived yeast Williopsis saturnus WC91-2. Microbiol Res 167:558–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Watari J, Takata Y, Ogawa M, Murakami J, Shohei K (1991) Breeding of flocculent industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by introducing the flocculation gene FLO1. Agric Biol Chem 55:1547–1552Google Scholar
  147. Watson JD, Crick FHC (1953a) A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171:737–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Watson JD, Crick FHC (1953b) Genetical implications of the structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Nature 171:964–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wickner RB, Edskes HK (2015) Yeast killer elements hold their hosts hostage. PLoS Genet 11:e1005139PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wildt S, Gerngross TU (2005) The humanization of N-glycosylation pathways in yeast. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Winzeler E, Shoemaker DD, Astromoff A, Liang H, Anderson K, Andre B, Bangham R, Benito R, Boeke JD, Bussey H, Chu AM, Connelly C, Davis K, Dietrich F, Dow SW, El Bakkoury M, Foury F, Friend SH, Gentalen E, Giaever G, Hegemann JH, Jones T, Laub M, Liao H, Liebundguth N, Lockhart DJ, Lucau-Danila A, Lussier M, M'Rabet N, Menard P, Mittmann M, Pai C, Rebischung C, Revuelta JL, Riles L, Roberts CJ, Ross-MacDonald P, Scherens B, Snyder M, Sookhai-Mahadeo S, Storms RK, Véronneau S, Voet M, Volckaert G, Ward TR, Wysocki R, Yen GS, Yu K, Zimmermann K, Philippsen P, Johnston M, Davis RW (1999) Functional characterization of the S. cerevisiae genome by gene deletion and parallel analysis. Science 285:901–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Woods DR, Bevan EA (1968) Studies on the nature of the killer factor produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol 51:15–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zimmermann RE, Stokell DJ (2010) Insulin production methods and pro-insulin constructs. US Patent No. 7790677 B2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham G. Stewart
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.International Centre for Brewing and DistillingHeriot Watt UniversityEdinburghUK
  2. 2.GGStewart AssociatesCardiff, WalesUK

Personalised recommendations