The Immigrant as Victim: The Minimal Research
Despite the common observation that immigrants are frequently victims of crimes, research on the topic has been limited in part due to the lack of good data and in part because claims makers have constructed the problem in other, more socially and politically compelling terms: “modern slaves;” trafficking victims; domestic violence; hate crime; child abuse and elder abuse. Another aspect of the problem is that the concept “immigrant” over-aggregates, lumping into one category people with widely differing characteristics. Victimologists have approached the subject from distinct traditions: the humanistic/human rights vs. the positivist or “conservative.”
KeywordsSocial construction Over-aggregate Humanism Positivism Claims makers Hans von Hentig
- Abraham, Margaret. 2000. Speaking the Unspeakable: Marital Violence Among South Asian Immigrants in the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Agozino, Biko. 1996. Changes in the Social Construct of Criminality Among the Immigrants in the United Kingdom. In Délit d’Immigration/Immigrant Delinquency, ed. S. Palidda, 103–131. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
- ———. 1997. Ethnic Minorities, Crime and Criminal Justice in Germany. In Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives, ed. M.H. Tonry, 31–99. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Barbagli, Marzio. 1998. Immigrazione e Criminalità in Italia. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
- Barbagli, Marzio, and Asher Colombo. 2009. Immigrants as Authors and Victims of Crime: The Italian Experience. In Immigration, Crime and Justice, ed. William F. McDonald, 69–94. Bingley, UK: Emerald/JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Baumann, E.A. 1989. Research Rhetoric and the Social Construction of Elder Abuse. In Images of Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems, ed. J. Best, 55–70. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- City Limits. 2004. Race Wars: Since 9/11, New York Has Been Shocked by Hate Crimes Against Immigrants. But What Happens When The Perps are People of Color Too? City Limits 29 (5, May): 17.Google Scholar
- Coston, Charisse T.M., ed. 2004. Victimizing Vulnerable Groups: Images of Uniquely High-Risk Crime Targets. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Cressey, Donald R. 1988. Research Implications of Conflicting Conception of Victimology. In Victimology: International Action and Study of Victims, ed. Z.P. Separovic, 43–54. Zagreb, Yugoslavia: University of Zagreb.Google Scholar
- Czajkoski, Eugene H. 1992. Criminalizing Hate: An Empirical Assessment. Federal Probation 56 (3, September): 36–41.Google Scholar
- Fattah, Ezzat A. 1991. Understanding Criminal Victimization: An Introduction to Theoretical Victimology. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall Canada.Google Scholar
- Geis, Gilbert, Duncan Chappell, and Michael W. Agopian. 1988. Rapporteurs’ Report: Toward the Alleviation of Human Suffering: The Fifth International Symposium on Victimology, Zagreb, 1985. In Victimology: International Action and Study of Victims, ed. Z.P. Separovic, 189–205. Zagreb, Yugoslavia: University of Zagreb.Google Scholar
- Goodey, J.O. 2005. Victims and Victimology. Longman Criminology Series. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
- Graglia, Diego. 2006. Migrants from Central America Brutalized in Mexico on Way to U.S. The Newhouse News Service. http://www.newhousenews.com/archive/graglia070506.html. Accessed 7 June 2006.
- Hagan, John, and Alberto Palloni. 1998. Immigration and Crime in the United States. In The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration, ed. J.P. Smith and B. Edmonston, 367–387. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Jenks, David A., and Catherine A. Jenks. 2004. Where are You Now, Cesar Chavez? The Unique Vulnerabilities and Victimization Experiences of Mexican Immigrants in the United States. In Victimization of Vulnerable Groups: Images of Uniquely High-Risk Crime Targets, ed. C.T.M. Coston, 96–103. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Junger-Tas, Josine. 1994. Delinquency in Thirteen Western Countries: Some Preliminary Conclusions. In Delinquent Behavior Among Young People in the Western World: First Results of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study, ed. J. Junger-Tas, G.J. Terlouw, and M.W. Klein, 370–380. The Hague and Amsterdam: RDC, Ministry of Justice Kugler Publications.Google Scholar
- Karmen, Andrew. 1990. Crime Victims: An Introduction to Criminology. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- Kennedy, Leslie W., and Vincent F. Sacco. 1998. Crime Victims in Context. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.Google Scholar
- Killias, Martin. 1997. Immigrants, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Switzerland. In Ethnicity, Crime and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives, ed. M. H. Tonry, 375–405. Vol. 21, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Martens, Peter L. 1997. Immigrants, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Sweden. In Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives, ed. M.H. Tonry, 183–255. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Mawby, R.I., and Sandra Walklate. 1994. Critical Victimology: International Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Mendelsohn, Benjamin. 1963. The Origin of the Doctrine of Victimology. Excerpta Criminologica 3(3, May–June): 239–244.Google Scholar
- Moseley, Ray. 1998. Germany’s New Storm Troopers: Old Demons in New Guise Spread Fear Among Foreigners. Chicago Tribune, April 5. University of North Carolina TV Online. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1998-04-05/news/9804050452_1_foreigners-rightist-violence-nazi. Accessed 25 May 2017.
- Mukherjee, Satyanshu. 1999. Ethnicity and Crime. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 117. Australian Institute of Criminology. http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/101-120/tandi117.html. Accessed 9 Aug 2004.
- Oakley, Robin. 2005. Policing Racial Crime and Violence: A Comparative Analysis. Vienna: European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia. http://eumc.eu.int/eumc/material/pub/PRCV/PRCV-Final.pdf. Accessed 18 June 2006.
- Palidda, Salvatore, ed. 1996. Délit d’Immigration/Immigrant Delinquency. EUR; 17472 FR/EN. Bruxelles: European Commission.Google Scholar
- Powers, Hiram. 1844. A Small Collection of Powers’ Statues. Worcestor, MA: Assumption College. http://www.assumption.edu/whw/IconsFemale/TheGreekSlave.html. Accessed 17 Mar 2003.
- President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. 1967. The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Schafer, Stephen. 1981. The Beginning of Victimology. In Perspectives on Crime Victims, ed. B. Galaway and J. Hudson, 15–26. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby.Google Scholar
- Sgarzi, Judith M., and Jack McDevitt, eds. 2003. Victimology: A Study of Crime Victims and Their Roles. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Hall.Google Scholar
- Shichor, David, and Stephen G. Tibbetts. 2002. Victims and Victimization. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.Google Scholar
- Spector, M., and J.I. Kitsuse. 1977. Constructing Social Problems. Menlo Park, CA: Cummings.Google Scholar
- Templeton, Alameen and Solly Maphumulo. 2005. Immigrants are Getting a Raw Deal. Durban: IOL (South Africa). http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=15&art_id=vn20050620075927904C974853. Accessed 22 June 2005.
- ———. 1948. The Criminal & His Victim: Studies in the Sociobiology of Crime. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, Krissah. 2005. Latino Restaurant Workers Offered Free Financial Management Classes. The Washington Post, August 2, D, p. 4.Google Scholar