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Major Soils, Properties, and Classification

  • Mohammad Hassan Roozitalab
  • Norair Toomanian
  • Vahid Reza Ghasemi Dehkordi
  • Farhad Khormali
Chapter
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

Iran is a large territory with diverse climatic condition, geology and vegetation cover which have led to formation of different soils that cover about 58% of the total land surface. The remaining areas are composed of bare mountains, sand dunes, playas/salinas, etc. Four major agro-climatic zones are distinguished: (i) arid region, (ii) semiarid region, (iii) humid and sub-humid region of the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea, and (iv) tropical semiarid region of the South. The Aridisols (Calcids, Gypsids, Salids, and Cambids), Entisols (Orthents and Fluvents), and Inceptisols (Xerepts, Ustepts, Udepts, and Aquepts) constitute about 97% of the total soil resources of the country, i.e., in the arid and semiarid zones. Other soil orders including Mollisols, Alfisols, and Ultisols, which have mainly developed in the Caspian Sea region, constitute less than 3% of the total soil cover. In this chapter, we define the extent of the soil orders, suborders, and dominant great groups in each region and describe main morphological and physicochemical properties of soils representing various soil great groups and their potentials for agricultural use.

Keyword

Soil properties Soil classification Soils of the arid to semi-arid regions Soils of Caspian region 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their appreciation and thanks to Dr. Kamran Eftekhari, Head of the Soil Genesis and Land Classification Department of Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI) for his collaboration and providing the high-resolution maps.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Hassan Roozitalab
    • 1
  • Norair Toomanian
    • 2
  • Vahid Reza Ghasemi Dehkordi
    • 1
  • Farhad Khormali
    • 3
  1. 1.Soil and Water Research InstituteTehranIran
  2. 2.Soil and Water Research DepartmentIsfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEOIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran

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